What practical importance does the Old Testament, or the Hebrew Scriptures have for Christian formation
week 2 Old Testament and Divine Revelation
Week #02 Assessment
1. What practical importance does the Old Testament, or the Hebrew Scriptures have for Christian formation? Using a set of Sunday readings at Catholic Mass as an example, explain the correlation between the first reading from the Old Testament and the gospel (outside of the Easter Season). Note: If you wish to find the Sunday readings online, go to http://www.usccb.org/ and click on a Sunday calendar date for a set of Sunday Mass Readings.
- Vatican II Docs Dei Verbum & Study Questions
- The Catechism #26-141
- Week #02 AA Biblical Interpretation (Online Lecture on word document)
Please answer BOTH of the following questions.
Note: Responses must be 3 paragraphs of 4-6 sentences per paragraph unless otherwise noted.
2. Why is prayer, study and living the Christian life so important in God’s revelation? How does Dei Verbum correlate prayer with the study of scripture? Cite a passage (or passages) from the bible that has been (or possibly can be) an inspiration for your prayer life and explain why they are important to you?
- For Part two,
- Then, after 1-2 days, I will share with you the question of the instructor If the instructor responds to the posting, then you will need to respond to the instructor question in less than 12 hours from sharing his question with you. Full credit will be given for those who provide a thorough response to the question I pose (if any).
UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW
Theo 210, Session #02: Dei Verbum On November 18, 1965, Pope Paul VI promulgated the Conciliar document of the Second Vatican Council entitled, The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei Verbum). In its preface, the bishops of the Second Vatican Council write that the focus of this document is “… to set forth authentic doctrine on divine revelation and how it is handed on, so that by hearing the message of salvation the whole world may believe, by believing it may hope, and by hoping it may love.” Below is the complete text of the Conciliar Document Dei Verbum. DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION DEI VERBUM SOLEMNLY PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS POPE PAUL VI ON NOVEMBER 18, 1965, PREFACE 1. Hearing the word of God with reverence and proclaiming it with faith, the sacred synod takes its direction from these words of St. John: “We announce to you the eternal life which dwelt with the Father and was made visible to us. What we have seen and heard we announce to you, so that you may have fellowship with us and our common fellowship be with the Father and His Son Jesus Christ”(1 John 1:2-3). Therefore, following in the footsteps of the Council of Trent and of the First Vatican Council, this present council wishes to set forth authentic doctrine on divine revelation and how it is handed on, so that by hearing the message of salvation the whole world may believe, by believing it may hope, and by hoping it may love. (1) 1 CHAPTER I REVELATION ITSELF 2. In His goodness and wisdom God chose to reveal Himself and to make known to us the hidden purpose of His will (see Eph. 1:9) by which through Christ, the Word made flesh, man might in the Holy Spirit have access to the Father and come to share in the divine nature (see Eph. 2:18; 2 Peter 1:4). Through this revelation, therefore, the invisible God (see Col. 1;15, 1 Tim. 1:17) out of the abundance of His love speaks to men as friends (see Ex. 33:11; John 15:14-15) and lives among them (see Bar. 3:38), so that He may invite and take them into fellowship with Himself. This plan of revelation is realized by deeds and words having in inner unity: the deeds wrought by God in the history of salvation manifest and confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while the words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery contained in them. By this revelation then, the deepest truth about God and the salvation of man shines out for our sake in Christ, who is both the mediator and the fullness of all revelation. (2) 3. God, who through the Word creates all things (see John 1:3) and keeps them in existence, gives men an enduring witness to Himself in created realities (see Rom. 1:19- 20). Planning to make known the way of heavenly salvation, He went further and from the start manifested Himself to our first parents. Then after their fall His promise of redemption aroused in them the hope of being saved (see Gen. 3:15) and from that time on He ceaselessly kept the human race in His care, to give eternal life to those who perseveringly do good in search of salvation (see Rom. 2:6-7). Then, at the time He had appointed He called Abraham in order to make of him a great nation (see Gen. 12:2). Through the patriarchs, and after them through Moses and the prophets, He taught this people to acknowledge Himself the one living and true God, provident father and just judge, and to wait for the Savior promised by Him, and in this manner prepared the way for the Gospel down through the centuries. 4. Then, after speaking in many and varied ways through the prophets, “now at last in these days God has spoken to us in His Son”(Heb. 1:1-2). For He sent His Son, the eternal Word, who enlightens all men, so that He might dwell among men and tell them of the innermost being of God (see John 1:1-18). Jesus Christ, therefore, the Word made flesh, was sent as “a man to men.”(3) He “speaks the words of God”(John 3;34), and completes the work of salvation which His Father gave Him to do (see John 5:36; Divine Revelation 17:4). To see Jesus is to see His Father (John 14:9). For this reason Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work of making Himself present and manifesting Himself: through His words and deeds, His signs and wonders, but especially through His death and glorious resurrection from the dead and final sending of the Spirit of truth. Moreover He confirmed with divine testimony what revelation 2 proclaimed, that God is with us to free us from the darkness of sin and death, and to raise us up to life eternal. The Christian dispensation, therefore, as the new and definitive covenant, will never pass away and we now await no further new public revelation before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ (see 1 Tim. 6:14 and Tit. 2:13). 5. “The obedience of faith”(Rom. 13:26; see 1:5; 2 Cor 10:5-6) “is to be given to God who reveals, an obedience by which man commits his whole self freely to God, offering the full submission of intellect and will to God who reveals,”(4) and freely assenting to the truth revealed by Him. To make this act of faith, the grace of God and the interior help of the Holy Spirit must precede and assist, moving the heart and turning it to God, opening the eyes of the mind and giving “joy and ease to everyone in assenting to the truth and believing it.”(5) To bring about an ever deeper understanding of revelation the same Holy Spirit constantly brings faith to completion by His gifts. 6. Through divine revelation, God chose to show forth and communicate Himself and the eternal decisions of His will regarding the salvation of men. That is to say, He chose to share with them those divine treasures which totally transcend the understanding of the human mind. (6) As a sacred synod has affirmed, God, the beginning and end of all things, can be known with certainty from created reality by the light of human reason (see Rom. 1:20); but teaches that it is through His revelation that those religious truths which are by their nature accessible to human reason can be known by all men with ease, with solid certitude and with no trace of error, even in this present state of the human race. (7) CHAPTER II HANDING ON DIVINE REVELATION 7. In His gracious goodness, God has seen to it that what He had revealed for the salvation of all nations would abide perpetually in its full integrity and be handed on to all generations. Therefore Christ the Lord in whom the full revelation of the supreme God is brought to completion (see Cor. 1:20; 3:13; 4:6), commissioned the Apostles to preach to all men that Gospel which is the source of all saving truth and moral teaching, (1) and to impart to them heavenly gifts. This Gospel had been promised in former times through the prophets, and Christ Himself had fulfilled it and promulgated it with His lips. This commission was faithfully fulfilled by the Apostles who, by their oral preaching, by example, and by observances handed on what they had received from the lips of Christ, from living with Him, and from what He did, or what they had learned through the prompting of the Holy Spirit. The commission was fulfilled, too, by those 3 Apostles and apostolic men who under the inspiration of the same Holy Spirit committed the message of salvation to writing. (2) But in order to keep the Gospel forever whole and alive within the Church, the Apostles left bishops as their successors, “handing over”to them “the authority to teach in their own place.”(3) This sacred tradition, therefore, and Sacred Scripture of both the Old and New Testaments are like a mirror in which the pilgrim Church on earth looks at God, from whom she has received everything, until she is brought finally to see Him as He is, face to face (see 1 John 3:2). 8. And so the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a special way in the inspired books, was to be preserved by an unending succession of preachers until the end of time. Therefore the Apostles, handing on what they themselves had received, warn the faithful to hold fast to the traditions which they have learned either by word of mouth or by letter (see 2 Thess. 2:15), and to fight in defense of the faith handed on once and for all (see Jude 1:3) (4) Now what was handed on by the Apostles includes everything which contributes toward the holiness of life and increase in faith of the peoples of God; and so the Church, in her teaching, life and worship, perpetuates and hands on to all generations all that she herself is, all that she believes. This tradition which comes from the Apostles develop in the Church with the help of the Holy Spirit. (5) For there is a growth in the understanding of the realities and the words which have been handed down. This happens through the contemplation and study made by believers, who treasure these things in their hearts (see Luke, 2:19, 51) through a penetrating understanding of the spiritual realities which they experience, and through the preaching of those who have received through Episcopal succession the sure gift of truth. For as the centuries succeed one another, the Church constantly moves forward toward the fullness of divine truth until the words of God reach their complete fulfillment in her. The words of the holy fathers witness to the presence of this living tradition, whose wealth is poured into the practice and life of the believing and praying Church. Through the same tradition the Church’s full canon of the sacred books is known, and the sacred writings themselves are more profoundly understood and unceasingly made active in her; and thus God, who spoke of old, uninterruptedly converses with the bride of His beloved Son; and the Holy Spirit, through whom the living voice of the Gospel resounds in the Church, and through her, in the world, leads unto all truth those who believe and makes the word of Christ dwell abundantly in them (see Col. 3:16). 9. Hence there exists a close connection and communication between sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture. For both of them, flowing from the same divine wellspring, in a certain way merge into a unity and tend toward the same end. For Sacred Scripture is the word of God inasmuch as it is consigned to writing under the inspiration of the 4 divine Spirit, while sacred tradition takes the word of God entrusted by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit to the Apostles, and hands it on to their successors in its full purity, so that led by the light of the Spirit of truth, they may in proclaiming it preserve this word of God faithfully, explain it, and make it more widely known. Consequently, it is not from Sacred Scripture alone that the Church draws her certainty about everything which has been revealed. Therefore, both sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture are to be accepted and venerated with the same sense of loyalty and reverence. (6) 10. Sacred tradition and Sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of the word of God, committed to the Church. Holding fast to this deposit the entire holy people united with their shepherds remain always steadfast in the teaching of the Apostles, in the common life, in the breaking of the bread and in prayers (see Acts 2, 42, Greek text), so that holding to, practicing and professing the heritage of the faith, it becomes on the part of the bishops and faithful a single common effort. (7) But the task of authentically interpreting the word of God, whether written or handed on, (8) has been entrusted exclusively to the living teaching office of the Church, (9) whose authority is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ. This teaching office is not above the word of God, but serves it, teaching only what has been handed on, listening to it devoutly, guarding it scrupulously and explaining it faithfully in accord with a divine commission and with the help of the Holy Spirit, it draws from this one deposit of faith everything which it presents for belief as divinely revealed. It is clear, therefore, that sacred tradition, Sacred Scripture and the teaching authority of the Church, in accord with God’s most wise design, are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand without the others, and that all together and each in its own way under the action of the one Holy Spirit contribute effectively to the salvation of souls. CHAPTER III SACRED SCRIPTURE, ITS INSPIRATION AND DIVINE INTERPRETATION 11. Those divinely revealed realities which are contained and presented in Sacred Scripture have been committed to writing under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. For holy mother Church, relying on the belief of the Apostles (see John 20:31; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:19-20, 3:15-16), holds that the books of both the Old and New Testaments in their entirety, with all their parts, are sacred and canonical because written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God as their author and have been handed on as such to the Church herself. (1) In composing the sacred books, God chose men and while employed by Him (2) they made use of their powers and abilities, so that with Him acting in them and through them, (3) they, as true authors, consigned to writing everything and only those things which He wanted. (4) 5 Therefore, since everything asserted by the inspired authors or sacred writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit, it follows that the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly, faithfully and without error that truth which God wanted put into sacred writings (5) for the sake of salvation. Therefore “all Scripture is divinely inspired and has its use for teaching the truth and refuting error, for reformation of manners and discipline in right living, so that the man who belongs to God may be efficient and equipped for good work of every kind”(2 Tim. 3:16-17, Greek text). 12. However, since God speaks in Sacred Scripture through men in human fashion, (6) the interpreter of Sacred Scripture, in order to see clearly what God wanted to communicate to us, should carefully investigate what meaning the sacred writers really intended, and what God wanted to manifest by means of their words. To search out the intention of the sacred writers, attention should be given, among other things, to “literary forms.”For truth is set forth and expressed differently in texts which are variously historical, prophetic, poetic, or of other forms of discourse. The interpreter must investigate what meaning the sacred writer intended to express and actually expressed in particular circumstances by using contemporary literary forms in accordance with the situation of his own time and culture. (7) For the correct understanding of what the sacred author wanted to assert, due attention must be paid to the customary and characteristic styles of feeling, speaking and narrating which prevailed at the time of the sacred writer, and to the patterns men normally employed at that period in their everyday dealings with one another. (8) But, since Holy Scripture must be read and interpreted in the sacred spirit in which it was written, (9) no less serious attention must be given to the content and unity of the whole of Scripture if the meaning of the sacred texts is to be correctly worked out. The living tradition of the whole Church must be taken into account along with the harmony which exists between elements of the faith. It is the task of exegetes to work according to these rules toward a better understanding and explanation of the meaning of Sacred Scripture, so that through preparatory study the judgment of the Church may mature. For all of what has been said about the way of interpreting Scripture is subject finally to the judgment of the Church, which carries out the divine commission and ministry of guarding and interpreting the word of God. (10) 13. In Sacred Scripture, therefore, while the truth and holiness of God always remains intact, the marvelous “condescension”of eternal wisdom is clearly shown, “that we may learn the gentle kindness of God, which words cannot express, and how far He has gone in adapting His language with thoughtful concern for our weak human nature.” (11) For the words of God, expressed in human language, have been made like human 6 discourse, just as the word of the eternal Father, when He took to Himself the flesh of human weakness, was in every way made like men. CHAPTER IV THE OLD TESTAMENT 14. In carefully planning and preparing the salvation of the whole human race the God of infinite love, by a special dispensation, chose for Himself a people to whom He would entrust His promises. First He entered into a covenant with Abraham (see Gen. 15:18) and, through Moses, with the people of Israel (see Ex. 24:8). To this people which He had acquired for Himself, He so manifested Himself through words and deeds as the one true and living God that Israel came to know by experience the ways of God with men. Then too, when God Himself spoke to them through the mouth of the prophets, Israel daily gained a deeper and clearer understanding of His ways and made them more widely known among the nations (see Ps. 21:29; 95:1-3; Is. 2:1-5; Jer. 3:17). The plan of salvation foretold by the sacred authors, recounted and explained by them, is found as the true word of God in the books of the Old Testament: these books, therefore, written under divine inspiration, remain permanently valuable. “For all that was written for our instruction, so that by steadfastness and the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope”(Rom. 15:4). 15. The principal purpose to which the plan of the old covenant was directed was to prepare for the coming of Christ, the redeemer of all and of the messianic kingdom, to announce this coming by prophecy (see Luke 24:44; John 5:39; 1 Peter 1:10), and to indicate its meaning through various types (see 1 Cor. 10:12). Now the books of the Old Testament, in accordance with the state of mankind before the time of salvation established by Christ, reveal to all men the knowledge of God and of man and the ways in which God, just and merciful, deals with men. These books, though they also contain some things which are incomplete and temporary, nevertheless show us true divine pedagogy. (1) These same books, then, give expression to a lively sense of God, contain a store of sublime teachings about God, sound wisdom about human life, and a wonderful treasury of prayers, and in them the mystery of our salvation is present in a hidden way. Christians should receive them with reverence. 16. God, the inspirer and author of both Testaments, wisely arranged that the New Testament be hidden in the Old and the Old be made manifest in the New. (2) For, though Christ established the new covenant in His blood (see Luke 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25), still the books of the Old Testament with all their parts, caught up into the proclamation of the Gospel, (3) acquire and show forth their full meaning in the New Testament (see Matt. 5:17; Luke 24:27; Rom. 16:25-26; 2 Cor. 14:16) and in turn shed light on it and explain it. 7 CHAPTER V THE NEW TESTAMENT 17. The word God, which is the power of God for the salvation of all who believe (see Rom. 1:16), is set forth and shows its power in a most excellent way in the writings of the New Testament. For when the fullness of time arrived (see Gal. 4:4), the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us in His fullness of graces and truth (see John 1:14). Christ established the kingdom of God on earth, manifested His Father and Himself by deeds and words, and completed His work by His death, resurrection and glorious Ascension and by the sending of the Holy Spirit. Having been lifted up from the earth, He draws all men to Himself (see John 12:32, Greek text), He who alone has the words of eternal life (see John 6:68). This mystery had not been manifested to other generations as it was now revealed to His holy Apostles and prophets in the Holy Spirit (see Eph. 3:4-6, Greek text), so that they might preach the Gospel, stir up faith in Jesus, Christ and Lord, and gather together the Church. Now the writings of the New Testament stand as a perpetual and divine witness to these realities. 18. It is common knowledge that among all the Scriptures, even those of the New Testament, the Gospels have a special preeminence, and rightly so, for they are the principal witness for the life and teaching of the incarnate Word, our savior. The Church has always and everywhere held and continues to hold that the four Gospels are of apostolic origin. For what the Apostles preached in fulfillment of the commission of Christ, afterwards they themselves and apostolic men, under the inspiration of the divine Spirit, handed on to us in writing: the foundation of faith, namely, the fourfold Gospel, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. (1) 19. Holy Mother Church has firmly and with absolute constancy held, and continues to hold, that the four Gospels just named, whose historical character the Church unhesitatingly asserts, faithfully hand on what Jesus Christ, while living among men, really did and taught for their eternal salvation until the day He was taken up into heaven (see Acts 1:1). Indeed, after the Ascension of the Lord the Apostles handed on to their hearers what He had said and done. This they did with that clearer understanding which they enjoyed (3) after they had been instructed by the glorious events of Christ’s life and taught by the light of the Spirit of truth. (2) The sacred authors wrote the four Gospels, selecting some things from the many which had been handed on by word of mouth or in writing, reducing some of them to a synthesis, explaining some things in view of the situation of their churches and preserving the form of proclamation but always in such fashion that they told us the honest truth about Jesus. (4) For their intention in writing was that either from their own memory and recollections, or from the witness of those who “themselves from the beginning were eyewitnesses and 8 ministers of the Word” we might know “the truth” concerning those matters about which we have been instructed (see Luke 1:2-4). 20. Besides the four Gospels, the canon of the New Testament also contains the epistles of St. Paul and other apostolic writings, composed under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, by which, according to the wise plan of God, those matters which concern Christ the Lord are confirmed, His true teaching is more and more fully stated, the saving power of the divine work of Christ is preached, the story is told of the beginnings of the Church and its marvelous growth, and its glorious fulfillment is foretold. For the Lord Jesus was with His apostles as He had promised (see Matt. 28:20) and sent them the advocate Spirit who would lead them into the fullness of truth (see John 16:13). CHAPTER VI SACRED SCRIPTURE IN THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH 21. The Church has always venerated the divine Scriptures just as she venerates the body of the Lord, since, especially in the sacred liturgy, she unceasingly receives and offers to the faithful the bread of life from the table both of God’s word and of Christ’s body. She has always maintained them, and continues to do so, together with sacred tradition, as the supreme rule of faith, since, as inspired by God and committed once and for all to writing, they impart the word of God Himself without change, and make the voice of the Holy Spirit resound in the words of the prophets and Apostles. Therefore, like the Christian religion itself, all the preaching of the Church must be nourished and regulated by Sacred Scripture. For in the sacred books, the Father who is in heaven meets His children with great love and speaks with them; and the force and power in the word of God is so great that it stands as the support and energy of the Church, the strength of faith for her sons, the food of the soul, the pure and everlasting source of spiritual life. Consequently these words are perfectly applicable to Sacred Scripture: “For the word of God is living and active”(Heb. 4:12) and “it has power to build you up and give you your heritage among all those who are sanctified”(Acts 20:32; see 1 Thess. 2:13). 22. Easy access to Sacred Scripture should be provided for all the Christian faithful. That is why the Church from the very beginning accepted as her own that very ancient Greek translation; of the Old Testament which is called the Septuagint; and she has always given a place of honor to other Eastern translations and Latin ones especially the Latin translation known as the vulgate. But since the word of God should be accessible at all times, the Church by her authority and with maternal concern sees to it that suitable and correct translations are made into different languages, especially from the 9 original texts of the sacred books. And should the opportunity arise and the Church authorities approve, if these translations are produced in cooperation with the separated brethren as well, all Christians will be able to use them. 23. The bride of the incarnate Word, the Church taught by the Holy Spirit, is concerned to move ahead toward a deeper understanding of the Sacred Scriptures so that she may increasingly feed her sons with the divine words. Therefore, she also encourages the study of the holy Fathers of both East and West and of sacred liturgies. Catholic exegetes then and other students of sacred theology, working diligently together and using appropriate means, should devote their energies, under the watchful care of the sacred teaching office of the Church, to an exploration and exposition of the divine writings. This should be so done that as many ministers of the divine word as possible will be able effectively to provide the nourishment of the Scriptures for the people of God, to enlighten their minds, strengthen their wills, and set men’s hearts on fire with the love of God. (1) The sacred synod encourages the sons of the Church and Biblical scholars to continue energetically, following the mind of the Church, with the work they have so well begun, with a constant renewal of vigor. (2) 24. Sacred theology rests on the written word of God, together with sacred tradition, as its primary and perpetual foundation. By scrutinizing in the light of faith all truth stored up in the mystery of Christ, theology is most powerfully strengthened and constantly rejuvenated by that word. For the Sacred Scriptures contain the word of God and since they are inspired really are the word of God; and so the study of the sacred page is, as it were, the soul of sacred theology. (3) By the same word of Scripture the ministry of the word also, that is, pastoral preaching, catechetics and all Christian instruction, in which the liturgical homily must hold the foremost place, is nourished in a healthy way and flourishes in a holy way. 25. Therefore, all the clergy must hold fast to the Sacred Scriptures through diligent sacred reading and careful study, especially the priests of Christ and others, such as deacons and catechists who are legitimately active in the ministry of the word. This is to be done so that none of them will become “an empty preacher of the word of God outwardly, who is not a listener to it inwardly”(4) since they must share the abundant wealth of the divine word with the faithful committed to them, especially in the sacred liturgy. The sacred synod also earnestly and especially urges all the Christian faithful, especially Religious, to learn by frequent reading of the divine Scriptures the “excellent knowledge of Jesus Christ”(Phil. 3:8). “For ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ.”(5) Therefore, they should gladly put themselves in touch with the sacred text itself, whether it be through the liturgy, rich in the divine word, or through devotional reading, or through instructions suitable for the purpose and other aids which, in our time, with approval and active support of the shepherds of the Church, are commendably spread everywhere. And let them remember that prayer should 10 accompany the reading of Sacred Scripture, so that God and man may talk together; for “we speak to Him when we pray; we hear Him when we read the divine saying.”(6) It devolves on sacred bishops “who have the apostolic teaching”(7) to give the faithful entrusted to them suitable instruction in the right use of the divine books, especially the New Testament and above all the Gospels. This can be done through translations of the sacred texts, which are to be provided with the necessary and really adequate explanations so that the children of the Church may safely and profitably become conversant with the Sacred Scriptures and be penetrated with their spirit. Furthermore, editions of the Sacred Scriptures, provided with suitable footnotes, should be prepared also for the use of non-Christians and adapted to their situation. Both pastors of souls and Christians generally should see to the wise distribution of these in one way or another. 26. In this way, therefore, through the reading and study of the sacred books “the word of God may spread rapidly and be glorified”(2 Thess. 3:1) and the treasure of revelation, entrusted to the Church, may more and more fill the hearts of men. Just as the life of the Church is strengthened through more frequent celebration of the Eucharistic mystery, similar we may hope for a new stimulus for the life of the Spirit from a growing reverence for the word of God, which “lasts forever”(Is. 40:8; see 1 Peter 1:23-25). 11 Week #02 Part One: Dei Verbum 1 From St. Jerome… “Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.” Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 2 Key Terms in This Discussion AGGIORNAMENTO: Meaning “to bring up to date,” was one of the key words used during The Second Vatican Council both by bishops and the clergy attending the sessions and those reporting on the sessions… Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 3 Key Terms in This Discussion AGGIORNAMENTO: … The term was the name given to the pontifical program of St. Pope John XXIII in a speech he gave on January 25, 1959. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 4 Key Terms in This Discussion THE DEPOSIT OF FAITH: The will of God given to us, which consists of our ability to interpret sacred scripture. The DOF never changes but our understanding of it develops with each age… Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 5 Key Terms in This Discussion THE DEPOSIT OF FAITH: Thus, according to the CCC #133:”The Church ‘forcefully and specifically exhorts all the Christian faithful . . . to learn ‘the surpassing knowledge of Jesus Christ,’ by frequent reading of the divine Scriptures. ‘Ignorance of the Scriptures is ignorance of Christ.’ Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 6 The Deposit of Faith Inspired by the Holy Spirit, The Magisterial Teachings consist of… Sacred Scripture We define sacred scripture as the “canon” or authentic writings of God’s salvific plan for humanity + tradition (small “t”) We understand tradition (small “t”) as the interpretation of the Sacred Scripture from the theologians of each age Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 7 The Deposit of Faith The Magisterium serves as the teaching body of the Church that relates to the faithful the message brought forth by Tradition and Sacred Scripture (CCC #85-87). Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 8 The Deposit of Faith In this approach, The Deposit of Faith, in its entirety, was revealed fully to His Church. However, in light of each generation’s gradual maturity in the faith, the Church evolves in her understanding of this Faith. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 9 The Deposit of Faith Therefore, each generation is challenged to return to the sources of interpretation (Sacred Scripture and Tradition) in order to shed new light, in today’s age, of the Deposit of Faith that our God has given us. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 10 Key Terms in This Discussion MAGISTERIUM: The living, teaching office of the Church, whose task it is to give as authentic interpretation of the word of God, whether in its written form (Sacred Scripture), or in the form of Tradition. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 11 Key Terms in This Discussion APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION: The apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a special way in the inspired books, was to be preserved by an unending succession of preachers until the end of time. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 12 Week #02 13 Introduction During the 1950s, the Church was united in doctrine, worship and loyalty to the Pope and bishops. The Catholic population was growing and vocations were flourishing. Lay movements were strong and enthusiastic. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 14 Introduction Globally, the threat of nuclear war and the moral implications thereof were challenges to the Church. Persecutions of religion from the Soviet Union, China and Eastern European communist countries were confronting the Church and the world. The widening gap between the rich and the poor, as well as civil rights for women and minorities were prominent issues. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 15 Introduction This shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, SJ, Michael Herbert, and John Courtney Murray, SJ who looked to integrate modern human experience with Church principles based on Jesus Christ. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 16 Introduction Others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal (or RESSOURCEMENT). Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 17 The Future Pope St. John XXIII During this time, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (18811963) was ordained a priest in 1904 and served in various posts including appointment as Papal Nuncio in several countries, including France (1944). Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a Cardinal in 1953. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 18 The Future Pope St. John XXIII As cardinal, he developed good relations with the Orthodox Church and, during World War II, he worked to assist Jews and refugees. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 19 Pope St. John XXIII Pope Pius XII dies in 1958 Angelo Roncalli is elected as the new pope October 28, 1958 at the age of 77 and takes the name of Pope St. John XXIII. He is seen as a moderate theologian. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 20 Pope St. John XXIII During his pontificate, he was given the nickname Good Pope St. John, due to his jovial nature, especially in his care for the sick and poor. He called himself “Your brother Joseph” in his ministry to Jews. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 21 Pope St. John XXIII His three projects he wished to undertake as pope: ◦ A Diocesan Synod for Rome ◦ A Drafting of a New Code of Canon Law ◦ The calling of an Ecumenical Council Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 22 Pope St. John XXIII His three most progressive and long-lasting changes: ◦ Convoking Vatican II ◦ Enlarging The College of Cardinals ◦ Reaching out to Jews and other non-Catholics Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 23 Pope St. John XXIII He surprised those who expected him to be a caretaker Pope by calling the historic Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 24 Introduction Pope St. John gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on January 25, 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958.This sudden announcement, which caught the Curia (the Vatican offices) by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 25 Pope St. John XXIII He called for this Council to increase the faith of believers, that the gospel may be given more efficaciously to solve the problems of modern times. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 26 Pope St. John XXIII He also believed that the divisions of the Church brought about in history were a scandal. Vatican Council II was to be different… not condemn but to build up and renew! Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 27 VIDEO CLIP – History & Genesis of Vatican II, Part I From Vatican II: Inside the Council Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 28 Introduction Reaction to the announcement was widespread and largely positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church and the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on December 25, 1961. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 29 Introduction In various discussions before the Council actually convened, Pope St. John often said that it was time to open the windows of the Church to let in some fresh air. He invited other Christians, outside the Catholic Church, to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both the Protestant denominations and Eastern Orthodox Churches. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 30 Week #02 31 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 32 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 33 Vatican II Series Video The following is the first of a five part series which offers an introductory summary of The Second Vatican Council. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 34 Vatican II (1962-1965) Convened by Pope St. John XXIII on December 25, 1961. In his opening address he said he called for the new council because he saw the Church as the cure to the “grave state of spirituality” of the world. ◦ Council was to be a gift to the world. ◦ Council was also meant to be a New Pentecost. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 35 Photos from Vatican II Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 36 The Council Meetings In total, Vatican II consisted of FOUR SESSIONS from 1962-1965 All bishops from around the world attended, as well as advisors. Observers were welcomed from Protestant, Eastern Orthodox Churches along with lay observers. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 37 The First Period – 1962 Pope St. John XXIII opened the Council on October 11, 1962 in a public session and read the declaration Gaudet Mater Ecclesia before the Council Fathers. October 13, 1962 marked the initial working session of the Council. That day’s agenda included the election for members of the ten conciliar commissions. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 38 The First Period – 1962 The very first meeting of the Council adjourned after only fifteen minutes. After subsequent meetings, the council adjourned on December 8th, work began on preparations for the sessions scheduled for 1963. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 39 The Death of Pope St. John XXIII These preparations, however, were halted upon the death of Pope St. John XXIII on June 3, 1963, since an ecumenical council is automatically interrupted and suspended upon the death of the Pope who convened it. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 40 Pope St. John XXIII Good Pope St. John died two months after the completion of his final encyclical, Pacem in Terris. Was canonized a saint by Pope Francis I on April 27, 2014. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 41 Pope Paul VI On June 21, 1963, the College of Cardinals elected Giovanni Montini (1897-1978) as pope, who took the name Paul VI. He served as pope from June 1963 until August 1978 Pope Paul VI immediately announced that the Council would continue. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 42 Pope Paul VI Presided over the Second – Fourth Sessions from 1962-1965 It was during the Fourth Session that the Bishops voted on the passing of Dei Verbum, stating September 20, 1965. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 43 Recap on Vatican II Vatican II did not define any new dogmas but had authority and ability to define doctrine Bishops are authentic teachers of the faith; under light & guidance of the Holy Spirit Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 44 Recap on Vatican II When something is divine revealed assent of faith is required FOUR CONSTITUTIONS (most important teachings) of the Councils; others given name of decrees Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 45 Recap on Vatican II Important to approach Vatican II documents with principle of looking at whole context (content and unity) of texts as teaching of the Council; and in light of Tradition of the Church Don’t take texts in isolation but in context of unity Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 46 Week #02 47 Vatican II: Types of Documents In order of authority: 1. DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION (most binding teaching) 2. DECREE (has no binding doctrinal character – or if it does, it is minimal – and that its only importance is pastoral and disciplinary). 3. DECLARATION (least binding) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 48 Vatican II: Types of Documents FOUR DOGMATIC CONSTITUTIONS: ◦ DEI VERBUM (Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation) ◦ LUMEN GENTIUM (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 49 Vatican II: Types of Documents FOUR DOGMATIC CONSTITUTIONS: ◦ GAUDIUM ET SPES (Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World) ◦ SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM (Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 50 Vatican II: Types of Documents NINE DECREES: ◦ AD GENTES (Decree on the Church’s Missionary Activity) ◦ ◦ APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM (Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity) CHRISTUS DOMINUS (Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church) ◦ INTER MIRIFICA (Decree on the Means of Social Communication) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 51 Vatican II: Types of Documents NINE DECREES: ◦ OPTATAM TOTIUS (Decree on the Training of Priests) ◦ ORIENTALIUM ECCLESIARUM (Decree on the Catholic Oriental Churches) ◦ PERFECTAE CARITATIS (Decree on the Up-to-date Renewal of Religious Life) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 52 Vatican II: Types of Documents NINE DECREES: ◦ PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS (Decree on the Life and Ministry of Priests) ◦ UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO (Decree on Ecumenism) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 53 Vatican II: Types of Documents THREE DECLARATIONS: ◦ DIGNITATIS HUMANAE (Declaration on Religious Liberty) ◦ GRAVISSIMUM EDUCATIONIS (Declaration on Christian Education) ◦ NOSTRA AETATE (Declaration on the Church’s Relations with NonChristian Religions) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 54 Week #02 55 The Council of Trent (1845-1863) Formal Title on the Subject of Revelation: No formal title, but concerned acceptance of the sacred books and apostolic traditions, and the role of the Latin Vulgate and means of interpretation. Year: 1546 (Fourth Session) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 56 The Council of Trent (1845-1863) Council’s View on Revelation: Revelation is not discussed as a separate topic; rather, two decrees set forth the following: ◦ The definitive canon of Sacred Scripture for the Church (46 books in the Old Testament; 27 books in the New Testament) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 57 The Council of Trent (1845-1863) ◦ The priority of the Latin Vulgate; the affirmation that God is the author of both Testaments, either by the preaching of Christ or the dictation of the Holy Spirit ◦ An emphasis on the Church’s definitive role in interpretation of the Scriptures and forbidding individual interpretation. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 58 The Council of Trent (1845-1863) Anathemas and restrictions were placed within the context of the two decrees, including restricting what biblical texts, with notes and/or interpretations, printers may print Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 59 Vatican I (1869-1870) Formal Title on the Subject of Revelation: Dei Filius (The Son of God) Year: 1870 (Third Session) Council’s View on Revelation: Revelation is discussed in Chapter 2 of the Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith, most of which reiterates the basic teaching on Scripture from The Council of Trent. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 60 Vatican I (1869-1870) Vatican I teaches that God can be known with certainty from the created world via the light of human reason. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 61 Vatican I (1869-1870) In Vatican I it is taught “that it is through His revelation that those religious truths which are by their nature accessible to human reason can be known by all men with ease, with solid certitude and with no trace of error, even in this present state of the human race.” Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 62 Vatican I (1869-1870) Supplemented by four anathemas: ◦ Against those who-deny that God can be known through human reason and the created order ◦ Against those who deny the necessity of learning about God and the importance of worshipping Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 63 Vatican I (1869-1870) Supplemented by four anathemas: ◦ Against those who affirm human self-development rather than acknowledging that God elevates human beings to divine perfection ◦ Against those who deny the canonical authority of all the books of the Old and New Testaments Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 64 Vatican II (1962-1965) Formal Title on the Subject of Revelation: Dei Verbum (Word of God) or Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Date: 1965 (Fourth Session) Council’s View on Revelation: A dogmatic constitution fully devoted to the topic of divine revelation, discussed in an introduction and six chapters. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 65 Vatican II (1962-1965) The Chapters cover the topics of revelation itself, the transmission of revelation, the divine inspiration of Scripture, the interrelationship of the Old and New Testaments, and the pastoral role of the Scriptures in the life of the Church. Vatican II promulgated no anathemas concerning the topic on Revelation. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 66 Week #02 67 Decretum Primum & Secundum Decretum Primum (On the Canonical Books) & Decretum Secundum (On the Latin Vulgate) Author: Council of Trent, Fourth Session Year Promulgated: 1546 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 68 Decretum Primum & Secundum Content: Called for respect of both Scripture and the apostolic Tradition of the Church; established the limits of the Catholic canon of Scripture, both the Old and New Testaments and gave precedence to Saint Jerome’s Latin Vulgate translation from the original languages Found in Dei Verbum: Sections 7, 9 & 11 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 69 Dei Filius Dei Filius (Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith) Author: Vatican Council I Year Promulgated: 1870 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 70 Dei Filius Content: Defined the Scriptures as sacred literature inspired by the Holy Spirit, with God as their “author” Found in Dei Verbum: Sections 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 & 12 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 71 Providentissimus Deus Providentissimus Deus (Encyclical on Scripture study) Author: Pope Leo XIII Year Promulgated: 1893 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 72 Providentissimus Deus Content: Cautiously promoted modern scientific study of Scripture while affirming the basic historicity of the biblical books Found in Dei Verbum: Sections 11, 24 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 73 Divino Afflante Spiritu Divino Afflante Spiritu (Encyclical on Promoting Biblical Studies) Author: Pope Pius XII Year Promulgated: 1943 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 74 Divino Afflante Spiritu Content: Encouraged Catholic scholars to use modern historical-critical methods of Bible research and to pay attention to the original languages and literary forms in the Bible; usually considered the Magna Charta of modern Catholic biblical study Found in Dei Verbum: Sections 11, 23 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 75 Sancta Mater Ecclesia Sancta Mater Ecclesia (Instruction on the Historical Truth of the Gospels) Author: Pontifical Biblical Commission Year Promulgated: 1964 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 76 Sancta Mater Ecclesia Content: Describes the gospel traditions as consisting of three levels: ◦ The Life of Jesus ◦ The Apostolic Age ◦ The Writing of the Gospels Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 77 Sancta Mater Ecclesia Found in Dei Verbum: Section 19 (adopts some of the language and the threefold schema of the gospel traditions, while affirming the basic historicity of the gospels) Reproduced with minor changes from Ronald D. Witherup, Scripture: Dei Verbum (New York/Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2006), 43. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 78 Week #02 79 Basic Themes: Scripture Scripture is the inspired Word of God The Septuagint is the canonical text (During the Reformation, Martin Luther & others rejected several books of the Septuagint) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 80 Basic Themes: Scripture Recognizes need for an intellectual approach to the biblical text Recognizes advances of historicalth critical scholarship in the 19 20th Centuries (Dei Verbum) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 81 The Church and the Bible We recognize the word of God as the source of Church teaching and theology Teaching authority of the Church is not above God’s word but meant to serve it Through Christ, the Word made flesh, man might in the Holy Spirit have access to the Father and come to share in the divine nature. (2) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 82 The Church and the Bible The Church encourages Scriptural scholarship Scholars are to present their findings to Church authority for guidance and approval Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 83 The Church and the Bible This new embrace of scripture has and will continue top renew the spirituality of the Church. Through scripture we understand more fully the Lord. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 84 About Dei Verbum DEI VERBUM (or THE DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION) was first debated on November 14-21, 1962 (on original schema, ‘The Sources of Revelation’). November 30 – October 6, 1964: Debate on the reworked schema ‘On Divine Revelation.’ Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 85 About Dei Verbum September 20-22, 1965: First voting. October 29, 1965: Voting on amendments. November 18, 1965: Solemn final voting (2344 for; 6 against) and promulgation. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 86 About Dei Verbum “Dei Verbum” is the Latin term for “The Word of God” According to the text, Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture make up a single sacred deposit of the Word of God. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 87 Purpose of Dei Verbum To quote St. Augustine, the purpose of Dei Verbum was “to set forth authentic doctrine on divine revelation and how it is handed on, so that by hearing the message of salvation the whole world may believe, by believing it may hope, and by hoping it may love.” (1) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 88 The Deposit of Faith The bible is the divinely inspired word of God, while approving of the reasonable use of contemporary scholarly methods for studying the literary form and historical contexts of sacred texts. It teaches that Scripture and Tradition form a single Deposit of Faith and that authentic interpretation of the Scriptures has been entrusted to the Magisterium alone. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 89 The Deposit of Faith Inspired by the Holy Spirit, The Magisterial Teachings consist of… Sacred Scripture We define sacred scripture as the “canon” or authentic writings of God’s salvific plan for humanity + tradition (small “t”) We understand tradition (small “t”) as the interpretation of the Sacred Scripture from the theologians of each age Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 90 The Deposit of Faith Scripture and Tradition are joined together and not independent sources of revelation. Proper and authentic interpretation of God’s word has been entrusted to the living teaching office of the Church alone. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 91 About Dei Verbum Past: Catechisms generally taught that not all revealed truth was contained in Holy Scripture. A biblical theology was largely lacking. The Bible played a secondary role in the religious life of the faithful. Ecclesiastical authority narrowly restricted modern scriptural study. The biblical movement met with many difficulties. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 92 About Dei Verbum Future: The view that all religious truth is found in the Bible is permitted by the Church. Scripture and tradition form a unity. Development within doctrine is possible. The Church’s teaching authority is not above the Bible but must serve it. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 93 About Dei Verbum Genuine science is fully recognized in biblical research. Scripture study must be the soul of theology. Preaching and proclamation must be biblical in approach. The scriptures are inerrant only insofar as truths of salvation are concerned; this inerrancy does not extend to secular statements. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 94 About Dei Verbum All are to diligently study the Bible, and provision is made for translations and for cooperation in this with non-Catholics. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 95 About Divine Revelation What is Source of Church’s Authority? ◦ The Pope or Bishops? ◦ Scripture or Tradition? ◦ The Magisterium or the Councils The Answer – DIVINE REVELATION! Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 96 About Divine Revelation To ensure that Divine Revelation would be preserved in the Church, they handed on to the bishops who succeeded them, through oral preaching, example, and observances, what Christ taught them, as well as committing the message of salvation to writing via inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 97 About Divine Revelation The Word of God is NOT just Sacred Scripture; but also Sacred Tradition Revelation is a free gift of God out of his love, in order to invite and receive us into His company This plan of revelation is realized by deeds and words having in inner unity… Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 98 About Divine Revelation … the deeds wrought by God in the history of salvation manifest and confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while the words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery contained in them. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 99 About Divine Revelation The Church passes on this Divine Revelation via TEACHING, LIFE & WORSHIP Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 100 About Divine Revelation This happens through the contemplation and study made by believers, through a penetrating understanding of the spiritual realities which they experience, and through the preaching of those who have received through Episcopal succession the sure gift of truth. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 101 About Divine Revelation By this revelation then, the deepest truth about God and the salvation of man shines out for our sake in Christ, who is both the mediator and the fullness of all revelation. (Dei Verbum 2) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 102 About Divine Revelation Adapted from the views of St. Augustine, Dei Verbum states that God prepared us in the Old Testament to wait for the Savior promised by Him and in this manner prepared the way for the Gospel down through the centuries. (Dei Verbum 16) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 103 About Divine Revelation In the New Testament, Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work of making Himself present and manifesting Himself. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 104 About Divine Revelation In The Catechism of the Church #140 summarizes well the teachings of Dei Verbum in this regard: The unity of the two Testaments proceeds from the unity of God’s plan and His Revelation. The Old Testament prepares for the New and the New Testament fulfills the Old; the two shed light on each other; both are true Word of God. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 105 About Divine Revelation God reveals Himself by both by word & deeds; word of God proclaimed the works & the deeds show forth the reality of the words Climax of this, though revelation begins by creation and prophets, is reached in Jesus Christ Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 106 About Divine Revelation No new revelation is expected until Christ’s second coming & all other understandings is a developing & deeper understanding of revelation (Dei Verbum 3) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 107 How does Revelation Occur? Place of natural revelation through reason (nature) God in world occurs through witness to “deeds” (signs) Some revelation is divine revelation such as the Trinity – not possible to discover through reason Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 108 How does Revelation Occur? Response of revelation is faith as man commits himself to God; “The obedience (submission) of faith” to God’s will is to be given to God who reveals Himself (Dei Verbum 5). St. Paul talks about this in his letters to the Corinthians and Romans. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 109 How does Revelation Occur? Recognize revelation through the power of Holy Spirit implies so revelation is more profoundly understood Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 110 How does Revelation Occur? Divine revelation does not exclude natural revelation (reason) God wished to show forth and communicate Himself and the eternal decisions of His will regarding the salvation of men. Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 111 The Source of Divine Revelation Vatican II’s Dei Verbum gives deeper insight and fuller revelation to what is taught than The Council of Trent or Vatican I Trent holds two sources of Revelation for Catholics (Scripture and Tradition), in response to the Protestant view that Revelation could be found in Scripture only Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 112 The Source of Divine Revelation Dei Verbum speaks not of two sources but One source, God God communicates in Scripture and Tradition Word of God is not just Sacred Scripture but Sacred Tradition (large “T”) as well Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 113 Role of Church Divine Revelation The teaching office of Church is tasked to give authentic teaching which is exercised in name of Jesus Christ, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 114 Role of Church Divine Revelation The Church teaches what has been entrusted to it; not superior & does not make proposals for belief, rather draws on Deposit of Faith The teaching authority of the Church is not burden but gift give to Church by Christ Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 115 Role of Church Divine Revelation God’s Truth is presented in fullness only when three are present – Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition & Magisterium Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 116 What is Sacred Tradition? SACRED TRADITION as a Source of Divine Revelation Sacred Scripture is part of Sacred Tradition as it is revealed word of God & as Catholics we base our belief on Divine Revelation of which Sacred Scripture is part – the are mirrors to each other (St. Augustine). Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 117 What is Sacred Tradition? Catholics value Scripture and understand that Sacred Tradition protects the authentic understanding of Scripture Sacred Tradition is also the Church’s lived tradition; morals, liturgy & how Scripture is interpreted down of the ages Dogma & Doctrine are part of Sacred Tradition Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 118 Sacred Tradition & Divine Rev. Tradition is something that is handed on includes what is written and whole way of life of Church that serves to make people of God live in holiness; Tradition is all that Church is and believes – God’s Revelation is not just God’s Word, but God’s Deeds as well Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 119 Sacred Tradition & Divine Rev. Our growth in Tradition occurs through developing understanding of Divine Revelation under guidance of Holy Spirit; known as development of doctrine as the Light of faith allows growth and insight into faith Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 120 Sacred Tradition & Divine Rev. As time goes by the Church develops & moves closer to the Truth There is ongoing work of deepening knowledge of the Deposit of Faith Deposit of Faith is what God revealed to us Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 121 Sacred Tradition & Divine Rev. Distinguish between Sacred Tradition (Large T) and tradition (small t) Gift of Sacred Tradition is part of Divine Revelation and cannot change, as it is unchangeable truth Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 122 Sacred Tradition & Divine Rev. traditions (small t) of Church that can be changed, such as regulations and ways of liturgy as they have changed throughout time Role of Magisterium as the living teaching office of Church able to distinguish between Sacred Tradition and Sacred Traditions, guided by the Holy Spirit Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 123 Sacred Tradition & Divine Rev. Vatican II implemented & made changes but not to Sacred Tradition – does not have authority Magisterium cannot teach against Sacred Scripture or Sacred Tradition; in other words, cannot teach against Divine Revelation! Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 124 Sacred Tradition & Divine Rev. As Council is faith event guided by the Holy Spirit; role of Bishops is to discern, govern and teach & response of laity is assent of faith Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 125 Sacred Tradition & Scripture Sacred Scripture all texts are written under guidance of Holy Spirit therefore given sure word of Truth WHO IS AUTHOR? Answer is God & Man – God is true author but God acted through talents of human author; it is Word of God in human words; reflects nature of Incarnation Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 126 Sacred Tradition & Scripture Vatican Council does not use word “dictation” as it can give misleading emphasis that God is whispering into author’s ear and not use of human faculties and powers – would imply no human freedom; reject “Theory of Dictation!” Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 127 Sacred Tradition & Scripture Dei Verbum speaks of authors write in context of their environment to express God’s Word reaffirming that human authors remain true authors God’s word in human form reflects the Mystery of the Incarnation – Jesus is both fully human & fully divine Scripture is both human & divine Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 128 Sacred Tradition & Scripture Sacred Scripture as a Source of Divine Revelation What God saying through authors is affirmed in Dei Verbum 11 to be without error to extent it involved salvation Holy Spirit communicates Truth of God for sake of our salvation Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 129 Sacred Tradition & Scripture Scripture is Book of Faith, so not necessarily is historically, scientifically or factually accurate Council dropped term “saving truths” as could mislead as some parts of Scripture not saving but reality is that ALL Scripture is about the saving truth Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 130 Sacred Tradition & Scripture The Council fathers did not want to restrict Scripture to dogma & morals which allows greater use of Scripture (PERSONAL PRAYER SHOULD ALWAYS ACCOMPANY THE READING OF SACRED SCRIPTURE) Shift of focus with Vatican II & Dei Verbum with recognition of modern approaches Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 131 Sacred Tradition & Scripture Necessary to use various approaches for clearer interpretation of Scripture Clearer Understanding of Scripture = Clearer understand & awareness of what God is revealing & communicating to us Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 132 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Some Theories Regarding Authorship Theory of Divine Assistance – human authors write with divine assistance; rejected as creates dual authority – what parts of Scripture are divine & what parts human! Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 133 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Theory is Partial Inspiration – based on literature aspect of scripture with evidence of person subjective contribution & other part is called “science” dealing with eternal realities Theory of Negative Assistance – humans sole authors & God does not intervene unless about to make a mistake Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 134 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation All Rejected as reject Principle of Incarnation Theory of Instrumental – Holy Spirit employs instruments and so moves them to assist authors and inspires them to write; theory recognizes Nature & Grace (Dei Verbum 11) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 135 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Dei Verbum 14 regarding the Old Testament Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 136 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Jesus is the fullness & complete revelation of God (Deposit of Faith) – no further revelation expected; Church now develops more understanding & knowledge of Revelation Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 137 Dei Verbum – The Old Testament The Old Testament is written before Jesus though imperfect (not fullness of revelation) show matters of divine teaching & gives expression to presence of God with treasure of prayer Old Testament matters are imperfect as not God’s final word (Jesus is) but preparing people of God to receive the Messiah Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 138 Dei Verbum – The Old Testament Main approach to the Old Testament is to approach it in light of the New Testament The New Testament is hidden in the Old Testament & the Old Testament is revealed in the New Testament (Catechism #140) Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 139 Dei Verbum – The Old Testament The Old Testament retains its literally independence; not either/or – the Old Testament is not only understood in light of New Testament; but also can be approached in its own context – particular author writing at a particular time, place, topic, event Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 140 Dei Verbum – The New Testament Dei Verbum 17 regarding New Testament THREE STAGES ◦ The Life of Jesus ◦ The Apostolic Age ◦ The Writing of the Four Gospels Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 141 Dei Verbum – The New Testament There is a historical character to New Testament & Gospels faithful to historical facts – Church hold events in Gospels did occur Authors did have freedom in writing what elements contained in written world The New Testament presents us with the Truth about Christ Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 142 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Sacred Scripture as a source of Divine Revelation BIBLICAL EXEGESIS is the study the study of Sacred Scripture seeking to understand more the Word of God/Divine Revelation Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 143 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Church making it clear that modern elements of biblical criticism are important to understand text and author, there is a valid and important place for biblical exegesis, as it helps us gain insight into intention of author and what God is saying Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 144 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Biblical Exegesis is not a carte blanche – methods used in study of Scripture are a tool to be used for a good purpose Using valid methods can come to invalid criticism & undermined faith such as Jesus resurrection and the miracles Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 145 Dei Verbum – Divine Revelation Interpretation needs to be in context and unity of Scripture within living Tradition of the Church and analogy of faith; as Church guided by the Holy Spirit Principle of Totality – Dei Verbum 12 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 146 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. PRINCIPLE OF UNITY/TOTALITY (Dei Verbum 2) – meaning one piece of Scripture must be view within whole context of Scripture DOGMA OF INERRANCY – Scripture is without error or deceit in regards to faith; this does not include historical or scientific facts Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 147 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. Revelation is Christo-centric – Divine Revelation reaches its summit/climax in Christ who reveals fully & completely who God is Senses of Scripture or methods of how to understand Scripture divided into Literal & Spiritual Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 148 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. Literal refers to factual texts, words, events, history – danger of Fundamentalism in extreme approaches Spiritual refers to understanding Scripture in such ways as allegory Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 149 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. Divine Revelation calls for “obedience of faith” – to encounter God evokes a response of faith Scripture contains and communicates what it signifies, we do not encounter facts or historical events but we encounter the God who communicates Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 150 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church presented by The Pontifical Biblical Commission to St. Pope John Paul II in 1993 Document covers Catholic approach & understanding regarding Sacred Scripture Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 151 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. Deals with various approaches, many of which can cause misunderstand & misrepresentation of Catholic understand of Scripture Document available on the Canvas Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 152 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. Topics accessible with opening page of contents Different approaches to Scripture (Literal & Spiritual) have positive possibilities and hidden dangers Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 153 Guidelines Understanding Scrip. Document gives bearings to Catholic exegesis on methods of Scripture study such as “Historical-Critical Method” “Fundamentalist Approach” “Patristic Reading” & “Philosophical Hermeneutics” “The Study of the Bible is the soul of theology” THEOLOGY – faith seeking understanding Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 154 155 Dei Verbum Today Sacred Scripture is heart of life of Church Church has always honor Scripture though many Catholics did not have knowledge of Scripture viewing it as something Protestant Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 156 Dei Verbum Today Catholics are called to immerse themselves into scripture especially those involved in pastoral ministry Prayer should accompany Scripture – invoking the Holy Sprit Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 157 Dei Verbum Today Profound understanding that we are listening to God when we read – not just learning information or reading about God, but we are actually encountering God in the Living Word/Scripture Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 158 Dei Verbum Today Dei Verbum compares Word to Eucharist and the faithful are to feed from the one table of both Word and Eucharist, recognizing Christ is present in the Word as he is in the Eucharist – Dei Verbum 21 Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 159 Summary Dei Verbum concerned with Divine Revelation DIVINE REVELATION is God’s self communication to us for our salvation DIVINE REVELATION is composed of Sacred Tradition & Sacred Scripture Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 160 Summary The Incarnation is the full & complete Divine Revelation Church entrusted to communicate Divine Revelation (Deposit of Faith) throughout history; does not have authority to change or alert Faith, only how it communicates it Sacred Scripture brings human/divine together & equal to Eucharist Theo 210A – The New Testament, Week #02 161 BIBLE LITERACY QUIZ Along with an alarming drop in basic literacy and cultural literacy in the United States, researcher George Gallup has discovered that born-again Christians are woefully ignorant of some very basic, very important Bible teachings. According to Gallup, less than half of the born-again community can list five of the Ten Commandments. Only three out of five Christians can recall the names of the first four books of the New Testament. Only half of the Christians polled correctly identified the person who delivered the Sermon on the Mount. And a full 42% of the Christians said that without the government’s laws, there would be no real guidelines for people to follow in daily life. It’s one thing to shake our heads in disbelief–and quite another to find out just how biblically literate we are, after all. So try your hand at this Bible literacy quiz and see how you’d fare if Mr. Gallup were to show up at your door! 1. Who wrote the first four books of the New Testament? 2. Prior to modern biblical criticism, who was understood to be the author of the first five books of the Old Testament? 3. What three Old Testament books are named for women? 4. What is the Greatest Commandment? 5. What is the second Greatest Commandment? 6. What is the Golden Rule? 7. What is the Great Commission? Bible Literacy Quiz Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Most conservative scholars hold that the Pentateuch was written by Moses. Judith, Esther and Ruth. “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.” (Matthew 22: 37,38) “Love your neighbor as yourself.” (Matthew 22: 39) “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” (Matthew 7: 12) “Therefore, go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I will be with you always, to the very end of the age.” (Matthew 28: 19,20) Page 1 8. What are the Ten Commandments? 9. What was the test of a prophet, to know that he was truly from God? 10. To whom did God give the 10 Commandments? 11. Which two people in the Old Testament did not die? 12. What is the root of all kinds of evil? 13. What is the beginning of wisdom? 14. Who delivered the Sermon on the Mount? 15. How did sickness and death enter Bible Literacy Quiz 1. I am the Lord your God; you shall have no other gods before Me. 2. You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. 3. You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God. 4. Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 5. Honor your father and your mother. 6. You shall not murder. 7. You shall not commit adultery. 8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife–or anything that belongs to your neighbor. (Exodus 20: 2-17) He had to be 100% accurate in his prophecies. The penalty for a false prophet was death by stoning. (Deuteronomy 18: 20-22) Moses. (Exodus 20) Genesis 5: 24 says that Enoch, who was Noah’s great- grandfather, “walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him away.” The other was the Old Testament prophet Elijah, who was taken up to heaven in a whirlwind with a chariot and horses of fire. (2 Kings 2: 11) The love of money. (1 Timothy 6: 10) The fear of the Lord. (Psalm 111: 10) The Lord Jesus. (Matthew 5-7) Romans 5: 12 says that sin entered the Page 2 the world? 16. 17. 18. Who was the Roman governor who sentenced Christ to death? Who are the major prophets? What people group is the Old Testament about? 19. What happened while the Lord Jesus was in the desert for 40 days? 20. How many people were on Noah’s ark? 21. Who was the first murderer? 22. Which person was afflicted with terrible trials but trusted God through it all? Who was Israel’s most well-known and well-loved king? Who was “the weeping prophet?” Who was thrown into the lion’s den? Who were the two people in the famous fight with a stone and a sling? What is the book of Acts about? 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. What are epistles? On what occasion was the Holy Spirit given to the church? Whom did God command to sacrifice his only son? What was the Old Testament feast that celebrated God’s saving the firstborn of Israel the night they left Egypt? Bible Literacy Quiz world though one man, and death through sin. The fall of man is recorded in Genesis 3, where God’s perfect creation was spoiled by Adam’s sin. Pontius Pilate. (Matthew 27: 26) Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. The Hebrews, who became the nation of Israel. They were descendants of Abraham though Isaac. He was tempted by the devil. (Matthew 4: 1) Hebrews 4: 15 tells us that He was tempted in every way, just as we are–yet was without sin. Eight: Noah and his wife, his three sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and their wives. (Genesis 7: 13, 1 Peter 2: 5) Cain, who killed his brother Abel. (Genesis 4: 8) Job. (See book of Job) David. (1 Chronicles 29: 28) Jeremiah. Daniel. (Daniel 6) David and Goliath. (1 Samuel 17) The early years of the church, as the gospel begins to spread throughout the world. Letters. Pentecost. (Acts 2: 1-4) Abraham. (Genesis 22: 2) Passover. (Exodus 12: 27) Page 3 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. Who was the Hebrew who became prime minister of Egypt? Who was the Hebrew woman who became Queen of Persia? Who was the pagan woman who became David’s great-grandmother? Which angel appeared to Mary? How did the Lord Jesus die? What happened to Him three days after He died? What happened to the Lord Jesus 40 days after His resurrection? What should we do when we sin, in order to restore our fellowship with God? 40. How did the universe and world get here? 41. Where did Satan and the demons come from? 42. Who directed the writing of the Bible? Where was the Lord Jesus before He was conceived in Mary? Who taught in parables? What are parables? 43. 44. 45. 46. Which two animals talked with human speech? 47. With which woman did David commit adultery? Bible Literacy Quiz Joseph. (Genesis 41: 41) Esther. (Esther 2: 17) Ruth. (Ruth 4: 17) Gabriel. (Luke 1: 26) He gave up His life while being crucified. (John 19: 18) He was raised from the dead. (John 20) He ascended bodily into heaven. (Acts 1: 9-11) 1 John 1: 9 tells us, “If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.” Genesis 1: 1 tells us, “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” We are told further in Colossians 1: 16 and 17 that the Lord Jesus Christ was the one who did the creating. Satan was originally the best and the brightest angel, but he sinned in his pride, wanting to be God. Some of the angels followed him, and these “fallen angels” were cast out of heaven. (Isaiah 14, Ezekiel 28) The Holy Spirit. (2 Timothy 3: 16, 2 Peter 1: 21) In heaven. (Philippians 2: 6-11, 1 Corinthians 15: 49) The Lord Jesus. (Matthew 13: 3) A short, simple story with a spiritual point. The serpent in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3: 3) and Balaam’s donkey (Numbers 22: 28) Bathsheba. (2 Samuel 11) Page 4 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. Which one of their sons succeeded David as king? Who was the female judge of Israel? Who was the wisest man in the world? Who was the first man? Who was the most humble man on earth? Who was the strongest man on earth? Where were the two nations of God’s people taken into captivity? Which cupbearer to a foreign king rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem? Who were the two Old Testament prophets who worked miracles? Which Old Testament prophet spent three days in the belly of a great fish? What is the last book of the Old Testament? For which Israelite commander did the sun stand still? Who was the first king of Israel? Who built the temple in Israel? Which of the twelve tribes of Israel served as priests? Which city fell after the Israelites marched around it daily for seven days? What did God give the Israelites to eat in the wilderness? Which two people walked on water? Who was the first martyr? Who betrayed Jesus to the priests, and for how much? Who was the first martyr? Who was the first person to see the risen Lord? Bible Literacy Quiz Solomon. (2 Samuel 12: 24) Deborah. (Judges 4: 4) Solomon. (1 Kings 3: 12) Adam. (Genesis 2: 20) Moses. (Numbers 12: 3) Samson. (Judges 13-16) Israel was taken into Assyria (2 Kings 17: 23), and Judah into Babylon (2 Chronicles 36: 20). Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 2: 5) Elijah and Elisha. (1 Kings 17 – 2 Kings 6) Jonah. (Jonah 1: 17) Malachi. Joshua. (Joshua 10) Saul. (1 Samuel 13: 1) Solomon. (1 Kings 6) Levites. (Deuteronomy 10: 8) Jericho. (Joshua 6: 20) Manna and quail. (Exodus 16) Jesus and Peter. (Matthew 14: 29) Stephen. (Acts 7) Judas betrayed Him for 30 pieces of silver, the price of a slave. (Matthew 26: 14-15) Stephen. (Acts 7) Mary Magdalene. (John 20: 16) Page 5 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. Which prophet and cousin of the John the Baptist. (John 14: 10) Lord was beheaded? To what country did the young Jesus Egypt. (Matthew 2: 13-15) and His parents escape when Herod was threatening His life? What was Christ’s first miracle? He turned water into wine at the wedding at Cana. (John 2: 11) Which one of the Lord’s personal Lazarus. (John 11) friends did He raise from the dead? Who was the greatest missionary of Paul. (see book of Acts) the New Testament? Who was Paul’s first partner? Barnabas. (Acts 13: 2) Whom did an angel release from Peter. (Acts 12) prison? Which event caused God to splinter The building of the Tower of Babel. human language into many (Genesis 11) tongues? Which chapter of an Old Testament Isaiah 53. prophet’s book gives a detailed prophecy of the Messiah’s death by crucifixion? Who wrestled all night with the Jacob. (Genesis 32: 22-32) Lord and was left with a permanent limp? Which two pastors did Paul write Timothy and Titus. letters to? Who was hailed as a god when he Paul. (Acts 28: 5-6) was bitten by a snake but nothing bad happened? Which two New Testament writers James and Jude. (Matthew 13: 55) were brothers of the Lord Jesus? Which two New Testament books Luke and Acts. (2 Timothy 4: 11) were written by a doctor? Who had a coat of many colors? Joseph. (Genesis 37: 3) In what sin did Aaron lead the Israelites while his brother Moses was up on the mountain talking to God? How many books are there in the entire Bible? Bible Literacy Quiz They made an idol in the form of a golden calf. (Exodus 32) 73: 46 in the Old Testament, and 27 in the New Testament. Page 6 87. What’s the difference between John the Baptist and the John who wrote several New Testament books? 88. Who saw the Lord appear to him in a burning bush? How many sons did Jacob have? 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. Who gave up his birthright for a bowl of stew? Which Psalm starts out, “The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want?” Who disowned the Lord Jesus three times before a cock crowed? What did the Lord do just before the Last Supper to demonstrate His love and humility? Where is the New Testament “Hall of Faith?” Who appeared with the Lord in glory on the Mount of Transfiguration? Who is the second Adam? Which Old Testament prophet married a prostitute because God told him to? What are the two sacred ordinances that the Lord commanded us to observe? What are supernatural enablings that allow a believer to serve the Body of Christ with ease and effectiveness? Whose tomb was Christ buried in? Bible Literacy Quiz John the Baptist was a prophet who proclaimed the kingdom of God was near in preparation for his cousin Jesus’ ministry. The John who wrote the gospel of John, the epistles–1, 2 and 3 John–and Revelation, was one of the twelve apostles and one of those closest to the Lord, along with Peter and James. He called himself “the disciple whom Jesus loved.” Moses. (Exodus 3) Twelve.They were the ancestors of the twelve tribes of Israel. (Genesis 35: 22) Esau. (Genesis 25: 33) Psalm 23. Peter. (Matthew 26: 69-75) He washed the disciples’ feet. (John 13: 5) Hebrews 11. Elijah and Moses. (Mark 9: 4) The Lord Jesus Christ. (1 Corinthians 15: 45-49) Hosea. (Hosea 1: 2) Baptism (Matthew 28: 19,20) and Communion, or the Lord’s Table (1 Corinthians 11: 23-26). Spiritual gifts. (Romans 12: 6-8, 1 Corinthians 12, Ephesians 4: 8-13, 1 Peter 4: 10-11) Joseph of Arimathea. (Matthew 27: 5760) Page 7 101. Who wrote the book of Hebrews? 102. Which is the “epistle of joy?” 103. What is the book of Revelation about? 104. Who is the bride of Christ? 105. In the century before Christ’s birth, how many other men had claimed to be the Messiah? 106. Matthew’s Gospel was directed at what audience? 107. Matthew used 53 direct quotes from the Old Testament to establish: 108. The Gospel of Mark is primarily focused on the Lord’s: 109. Luke is known as: 110. The feeding of the 4,000 was mentioned in how many of the Gospels? 111. Christ’s Ministry was based on: 112. Christ was put on trial before: 113. How many RECORDED appearances did Christ make AFTER his death and resurrection? 114. What was the largest group Christ appeared to after His death and resurrection? 115. Christ’s ministry continued how long after his death and resurrection? 116. The “Speaking in Tongues” at Pentecost was: 117. Regarding slavery, Christ and the early church leaders… Bible Literacy Quiz Nobody knows. Philippians. The end of the world. The Church – that is, all who have trusted Him for salvation. (Ephesians 5: 25-27, Revelation 19: 7-8) 60 Jews That Jesus of Nazereth was the Messiah, the King of the Jews Actions The Beloved Physician 4 Both the Abrahamic & Davidic Covenant Both Pilate & Herod 11 500 40 days Pragmatic: the crowd was multi-lingual and the disciples were suddenly able to speak their languages. Were grieved by it and offered the slaves pragmatic advice on coping with slavery as Christians. Page 8