The first step create a short summary of the article. You may use a PowerPoint slide show, to convey the key information and argument in the article. It does not need to be elaborate, but there should be NO typos. A map or other graphics may be useful. The presentation should take about five to ten minutes to view.
Be sure to clarify any new terms that are introduced in the article.
The presentation should pose questions to the class to direct a conversation in which you use information from the articles to discuss the topics of human trafficking and integral human development. These may come at the end, or be integrated throughout the presentation
. Try to extend the discussion beyond the confines of this article. For example, how does the author’s argument connect with other information, situations, and/or applications? Try to create questions that will tie your presentation with those of other students.
The article is attached below
Slide 1 of 1
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Living the dream Where there is money to be made there will be crime. This expression is no truer than in the case of professional sports. Whether in proven cases of match fixing such as the 1919 World Series and the Italian Calciopoli (2006) or allegations of bribery surrounding FIFA’s world cup allocation processes a precedent has been set for criminal groups to infiltrate organised sports. Furthermore the growth of the Internet and the possibility to bet on every outcome, the chances of making a substantial financial profit compared to the likelihood of getting caught makes the business of match manipulation irresistibly attractive to international organised crime. This has recently prompted UNODC to start a new initiative dedicated at organized crime in sports betting. Though still a serious problem in international sports, illegal betting and match fixing have at least received widespread coverage. The same cannot be said for human trafficking in sports, which is essentially absent from academic and political discourse and has rightly been described as “football’s great unreported scandal.” Jake Marsh an established investigator at the International Centre for Security in Sport (ICSS) has substantiated this viewpoint claiming that he has “never encountered a wall of silence like the one obstructing inquiries in to trafficking,” and that “while data is hard to come by to ascertain its prevalence, there is undeniably a problem that requires investigation and solutions at both the national and international levels.” The Prospect of finding the next big thing combined with thousands of children desperate to improve their lives has created an avenue for criminals, unscrupulous agents and clubs alike. The process is facilitated by the lack of effective governance within the sector, complexity and multi-jurisdictional nature of the crime as well as sport’s impermeability to legal and moral obligations to regulate and safeguard the welfare of its stakeholders, especially that of minors. In the European context, the ICSS has heard claims that roughly 1500 young Africans are trafficked yearly. Jake Marsh points out, however, that due to poor governance and immigration monitoring in various countries, it is incredibly difficult to put a precise figure on the problem: “In reality, both the illegal and irregular movement of individuals, particularly at youth level, needs to be better understood by football governing bodies and governments not least since those perpetrating it will be linked to other crime types,” he says. However Europe is not the only destination continent, with players discarded in South East Asia and the Middle East. Africa is certainly not the only continent that athletes are trafficked from with South America equally a popular destination of recruitment. The practice of trafficking footballers is closely related to organised crime, a 2007 investigation revealed that businessmen in the Ivory Coast were turning away from diamond and timber smuggling in favour of setting up illegal academies. Belgium’s discovery of 442 illegally traded Nigerian players indicated that those trafficking players also traffic sex workers and drugs. The archetypal case of trafficking involves a dishonest agent convincing a prospective athlete and their family that they have the potential to be a successful professional. The agent then demands a loan from the athlete, which in some cases their family goes to extreme methods to finance. The agent would then take the athlete to another country for a “trial” abandoning them there after taking the money. FIFA recently lifted the requirement for international transfers to be conducted by licensed agents after revealing that 70% of international transfers worth billions of dollars occurred between non-licensed agents. Even without this development the number of unlicensed agents and academies using such methods are growing at an unabated pace. At the time of writing there are at least 500 illegal academies in Ghana’s capital city Accra, Qatar’s coveted football program receives 750,000 applicants for less than 30 places and more academies are appearing in well known footballing nations including Brazil and Argentina. Yet deceitful agents are by no means the sole culprits. Those complicit in the practice now include former players, businessmen, and even world-famous football clubs acting in a variety of ways. In 2014, Barcelona, a club with a history of questionably recruiting underage players, hit the headlines after signing 9 year old Japanese prodigy Tafekusa Kubo. They were also banned from signing any more players until 2016 after violating transfer violations. Remarkably Barcelona did not choose to deny the charges but cited that they were unfair when considering that other clubs were acting in the same way. This claim is not without grounds, within the last two decades clubs in Spain, Denmark, Turkey and the United Kingdom have been sanctioned for illegal signing children. Although the direct consequences are undoubtedly borne by the victims of trafficking there are overreaching effects that should not be ignored. Victims contribute to irregular migration; they lose the opportunity to receive an education or a chance to contribute to the development of their origin countries (many of those that have a need for better infrastructure). In the unlikely outcome that they do manage to return they are not in a position to help and become dependent and on a state that is already overburdened. Often victims stranded in foreign countries without contacts become engaged in other types of organised crime as victims or perpetrators. A large number of boys can be found in the sex trade, in involuntary domestic servitude, working as forced labourers in the catering industry and as participants in the drug trade. Most of these eventualities are based on the assumption that athletes survive the journey. In the worst case scenario attempts to arrive in Europe result in death or poor health. Owing to the dearth of data in illegal migration smuggling, it is difficult to quantify the scale of such accidents however the trawler incident at La Tejita where fifteen children were found attempting to make it to Spain confirms this danger exists. As long as these crimes continue to exist the integrity of sport will be tested. NGOs including Foot Solidaire are lobbying for domestic governments to engage in the issue and implement monitoring policies at the national level. Much has been made of the lack of enforcement and monitoring by Football’s leading bodies and justifiably so. Yet in criticizing private entities it is crucial not to overlook that fact that for every agent willing to exploit young athletes they are many more children and parents willing to take the risk to “make it.” While welcoming the calls for stricter regulation and stronger laws there is equally a need for grass roots education programs informing children and their families of the competition, risks, dangers and realities attached to achieving their dreams. https://globalinitiative.net/living-the-dream-human-trafficking-the-other-organized-crimeproblem-in-sports/
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Tags: business and finance criminal justice system criminology Economy Human Trafficking In Sports