Your course has presented both theory and application materials through videoshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ubRzzirRKs&feature=emb_logo, literature research(Apply Drucker’s views and principles of leadership to a work environment.), and discussion sessions with your peers and your professor. Describe (in no less than 200 words), how the process of working on the case study with your team relates to at least one topic from the course’s content.
- Respond to the question thoroughly. This is a formal assignment with a minimum of 200-250 words.
- It should include at least one reference from relevant peer-reviewed journal articles and/or books found within the online LIRN library or other reputable sources.
- These must be properly cited in APA format. Remember you can also use your textbook.
- See your Course Summary for due dates.
Second and Third Posts:
- Reply to at least two classmates’ posts. Your response to your classmate’s discussion needs to be substantive, meaning it should add something new to the original comment, including a level of depth that enriches the discussion (i.e. reflecting on their response, applying their comment to the workplace, the literature, etc.).
- Your professor will reply to student posts and may also ask questions of the student/s, please be vigilant and address his or her concerns by replying back to your professor’s comment to your post to acknowledge understanding.
- See your Course Summary for due dates.
This semester, we worked on the SJCM case study to figure out what it takes to build a successful succession plan, and to foster a strong community. We take this not only as a chance to evaluate SJCM’ organizational situation but also as an opportunity to analyze the healthiness of the overall group. Our research on this case study started numerous research and follow-up questions. Throughout the process, we figured that Lewi’s three-stage model could help our client to evaluate the current challenge, brainstorm ideas for improvement, and also to keep track of the metrics that ultimately drive performance. Furthermore, we learned about the importance of using strategic narratives and communications skills to shape the target audience’s attitude and value for a behavior change either short term or long term (Crannell and Sheppard, 2011.) Our values and beliefs are determined and impacted by the information we perceived. Therefore, Lewi’s three-stage model would play an important role, especially during challenge situations. In my own experience, if a leader were able to use a collection of compelling stories to justify what they are saying… it’d be much easier for me to buy-in on what he or she says.
Crannell, M., & Sheppard, B. (2011). Preparing to lead with a compelling narrative: If you don’t frame the narrative, someone else will. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 5(3), 11-21
The case study of Mayor Landrieu allowed me to better understand the importance of communication for leaders. This is not only about expressing what is on the leader’s mind and what he or she wants to accomplish. In order to achieve the objectives of the leader, it is very important to learn how to communicate effectively and efficiently. Analyzing his or her audience is a good place to start because matching demand and supply enables the content of the communication to be understood. Moreover, starting a conversation or speech with soft opening is beneficial to invite the audience to keep an open mind to the content without becoming offensive. Making connections to the audience is very helpful in terms of allowing the content to be delivered at expectation because the audience can feel it relevant to them. This can be further improved by addressing to individuals rather than the audience group as a whole. In addition, I learned that followers generally value communication as well as the communication style including level of directness and tone of voice that is considered desirable is highly culture specific. Mayor Landrieu did an outstanding job in terms of understanding their positions and choosing the appropriate communication style which was expected to be effective.
Nahavandi, A. (2015). The art and science of leadership. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW
ST. JOHN THE COMPASSIONATE MISSION: ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP Colleen Sharen wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The author does not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The author may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality. This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitized or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 0N1; (t) 519.661.3208; (e) firstname.lastname@example.org; www.iveycases.com. Copyright © 2014, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation Version: 2014-02-12 In late May 2013, Father Roberto Ubertino, the founder and executive director of the St. John the Compassionate Mission (SJCM or the Mission), a faith-based social service organization located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, sat down to plan for his next board retreat scheduled to occur in early July. As the founder of SJCM, Father Roberto had been the driving force behind the Mission for the past 27 years. Now it was time to plan for his retirement. Recently, two similar organizations had experienced crises when their leaders and founders unexpectedly left, leaving vulnerable people at risk. Father Roberto reflected that good leaders, as stewards of their organizations, must prepare for leadership succession. He needed to engage the SJCM community in developing a plan that ensured the transition of leadership, stability of the Mission, maintenance of its culture and protection of its vulnerable members. At the same time, the community was wrestling with three strategic issues that would be faced by the new executive director. The next board meeting was an ideal time to start this conversation. ST. JOHN THE COMPASSIONATE MISSION The Mission was a diocesan apostolate of the Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. An incorporated non-profit organization that issued charitable tax receipts, the Mission served anyone in need, no matter what their faith. The Mission was inspired by St. John the Compassionate, whose vision differed from the contemporary Western view that poor people were to be helped and pitied by others; rather, it believed that we can learn from the poor. The Mission believed that poverty reinforced an isolation from community that created a separate culture. The extensive Canadian social service and welfare system, while well-meaning, made it difficult for people to escape the poverty trap. These traditional services focused on what people in poverty didn’t have, while SJCM preferred to help people build on the gifts that they did have, allowing people perceived as having no place in society to create a place where they had dignity and could contribute to their community. These beliefs were expressed in the Mission’s vision and mission statements. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. 9B14C001 Page 2 9B14C001 The most fundamental need of people is something that most people take for granted — a meaningful place in a healthy community, a sense of belonging. Without it, drug rehab, improved housing or employment programs have little effect. Without it, people remain trapped in a lifestyle that is difficult to escape. When people do not feel like they belong, they just cannot seem to recover. SJCM Mission Our purpose is to be and to build an inclusive community through the gifts and needs each of us brings. This community of love is a place of healing and nourishment occurring through awakening of the God-given dignity and value of each person, while responding to each person’s human needs. History Roberto Ubertino worked for the City of Toronto as a public health nurse in a poor neighbourhood called the Pocket. In 1985, with a number of like-minded volunteers, he founded the St. John the Compassionate Mission. By 1986, he had received a promise of $500 per month from a local Orthodox priest to open a permanent location. But there was a misunderstanding: the priest had expected the grant to be one time only, not a monthly commitment. Ubertino had only enough money for the first month’s rent. He opened the mission anyway, in a strip mall store with no power or water. Volunteers brought buckets of water and thermoses of tea from home. Candles provided light. One table and a few donated chairs were the only furniture. Over time, the Mission became more financially stable, and the lights and water were turned on. In addition to running the Mission, Ubertino continued to work for the city as a nurse. During this period, he decided to enter the priesthood, becoming Father Roberto. Stories of the Mission’s history illustrate the entrepreneurial risk-taking culture that evolved. At one point, the volunteer bookkeeper told Father Roberto that the Mission was down to its last $100, not enough to pay the rent or keep the lights on. So the community decided to use that money to buy a kite and have a picnic in the local park. The next day, a cheque for $10,000 unexpectedly arrived. Father Roberto believed that if the Mission looked after the people, God would look after the money. By the mid 1990s, the Pocket was overrun with drugs and violence. The decision was made to move to another location in the west end of Toronto. However, the new location did not materialize, and the Mission was homeless for a year. Volunteers and community members met in parks and brought food from home to support it. In 1995, the Mission moved to a new building located in South Riverdale, several blocks from its old location in the Pocket. The new building boasted a chapel, community dining hall, kitchen and office space, reflecting the culture and beliefs of the Mission. It was decorated with religious icons and art. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. SJCM Vision Page 3 9B14C001 The South Riverdale neighbourhood was a 10-minute drive east of Toronto’s downtown financial district. Historically, it had been populated by many vulnerable people with substance abuse problems, poverty, mental or physical disabilities and psychological problems, as well as by recent immigrants to Canada. In the past 10 years, the neighbourhood had begun to gentrify. Census data showed that high income families had moved in, accounting for 28.9 per cent of families in 2005, up from 11.6 per cent in 2000. Low income families had increased from 22.5 per cent in 2000 to 26.9 per cent in 2005, slightly higher than the city-wide average of 21 per cent.1 The neighbourhood was becoming both poorer and wealthier at the same time. MISSION INITIATIVES The Mission’s initiatives could be broadly categorized as eat, pray and work. They developed organically: a member of the community might identify a need and then be tasked with doing something about it. For example, Joanna Smith, who along with her children participated in Mission programs, noticed that men staying in shelters were unceremoniously evicted at 6 a.m. into the brutally cold winter weather. She asked Father Roberto if the Mission could run a breakfast program to give the men shelter from the cold. He responded by handing Smith the key to the building. She had been running the breakfast program for nine years, epitomizing the SJCM belief that everyone in the community both gave and received. Eat: Creating Community through Hospitality The Mission believed that communities were more than neighbourhoods. People lived in neighbourhoods but were members of a community. Communities took care of each other, supported each other and believed in each other. Hospitality created connection through welcoming guests, taking care of them, sitting with them, making them feel welcomed and connecting with them as sincerely and compassionately as possible. The activities of the Mission were designed to create a sense of membership, true community, actually knowing your neighbours; in other words, they were about hospitality. The community room contained large round tables for coffee, meals and gatherings. Every day, the Mission offered coffee, tea and cookies to the public at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. Deacon Pawel, a staff member and Prefect of the Lived Theology School, called it the sacrament of coffee: It is a sacrament of fellowship, belonging and healing. It is a vital means to an end. From the moment we sit down with someone to share in a coffee, we begin to talk and listen to each other sharing news, ideas, worries, joys, jokes and stories. This is the beauty of the Mission, to be with the other person. Two souls in communion with each other, open to giving and receiving the presence of each other. That is the beauty of true fellowship.2 The Mission believed that communal meals were the foundation of a community and so offered lunch every day. Served family-style by a team of volunteers and paid staff, members of the community shared conversation, food and society around the table. The small kitchen, run primarily by volunteers, churned 1 City of Toronto, “South Riverdale Social Profile #4 — Neighbourhoods Income & www.toronto.ca/demographics/cns_profiles/2006/pdf4/cpa70.pdf, accessed June 5, 2013 2 B. Pospielovsky, “Internal History of St. John the Compassionate Mission,” 2013. Internal document. Poverty,” 2006, Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Neighbourhood and People 9B14C001 out 3,000 meals every month. The team often had to creatively use whatever food donations arrived in the morning to make lunch. Sunday evening supper along with special occasion meals during major holidays were also common. Every week, some kind of celebration of life’s milestones happened at SJCM, including weddings, funerals and homecomings. The Mission ran a number of family programs, including an alternative food program, cooking classes, a weekly “Kids Klub,” summer youth camps and weekly teen movie nights. St. Xenia’s House, another Mission program, supported a small community of six residents in a single home in downtown Toronto. For many residents, this was the first time they experienced interdependence with others, sharing meals and life as a functioning community. The Mission also offered “in from the cold” programs in the winter and shelter from the heat in the summer. Pray The Mission was a hybrid place of worship and social service agency. St. Silouan the Athonite Mission Parish, was a Carpatho-Russian Orthodox parish started as an initiative of the Mission. It was one of two Orthodox churches in the Toronto area that conducted services in English. Located on the main floor of the Mission, the church’s focus on prayer and reflection provided emotional, psychological and spiritual support not often found in traditional secular social service agencies. The congregation consisted of worshippers from across Toronto. The parish never actively proselytized or converted the poor. If anything, the members of the Mission community taught parish members what it meant to be marginalized. The presence of the parish as one initiative of the Mission “is an inversion of the contemporary viewpoint that we can save the poor. The community is of the poor for the poor.”3 Services were held daily in the Chapel at 11:30 a.m. The leadership council prayed together every day, along with any community members who wished to participate. Each meal was preceded by a blessing by either Father Roberto or one of the Deacons. While prayer was an explicit part of the daily activities of the Mission, no one was pressured in any way to participate in the religious aspect of the community. In addition to the parish, the organization also ran the Lived Theology School for young Orthodox Christian women and men to spend a year in academic and spiritual study, prayer and community work. Lay missionaries in this program lived together in a community house and participated in the work of the Mission, gradually taking on leadership roles within the community. SJCM offered two additional programs. The St. Mary of Egypt Refuge, located two and a half hours from Toronto near a large provincial park, offered a “home away from home” for people who needed a break from city life to pray, reflect and relax. St. Macrina Counselling Services offered geared-to-income counselling for people experiencing emotional difficulties. Work The Mission believed that meaningful work helped people get off welfare, attaining dignity and a sense of personal value in the process. To that end, it provided opportunities for everyone in the community to work through employment in one of its two social enterprises or through volunteer opportunities. The Thrift Store provided community members opportunities to volunteer, work and buy affordable used clothing and goods. 3 Ibid. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Page 4 9B14C001 The St. John’s Bakery (the Bakery) began in the late 1980s, a result of happenstance. When the Mission first opened in the Pocket, the owner of a bakery two doors down, Joe Links, showed up with a tray of donuts. Over the years, he continued to deliver gifts of bread and bakery sweets. Unfortunately, Links fell ill, lost his business and his family, ending up on the street. He decided to bake again at the Mission dropin centre, selling bread in the neighbourhood, which resulted in personal transformation. He died two years later, leaving his equipment to the Mission. Eventually the Bakery scaled up into a full commercial business featuring a busy retail storefront. The enterprise was a place “where people of varying capabilities and social backgrounds come together to do something constructive and creative.”4 While it made some money, the Bakery was not expected to be profitable; its purpose was to create opportunities for meaningful work in the community. Its vision expressed the Mission’s view of work and community: St John’s Bakery wants to be a part of a new economy that puts relationship first. To make bread with love and the bottom line. Put in as much as we can afford, not as little as you can get away with. Not to squeeze the people we buy or sell to, to innovate to make things better, not cheaper. We believe that learning how to bake is a craft. The reward is in the doing. We will try to shorten the distance between the maker and user. We believe we should grow as a business for our own reasons, not just for growth sake. We are committed to create an appetite for better bread. We commit to give people who suffered in life a chance to be successful in work. The Bakery employed professional bakers, people on government support and students. Many volunteered to work at the Bakery in an informal apprenticeship program, learning both the theory and practice of baking under the supervision of a lead baker for six months. Apprentices were evaluated regularly. If their performance was rated unsatisfactory, they could be asked to continue on probation, required to repeat a process or could be terminated.5 Participants often struggled to adjust to the expectations of working life. “It’s not stable,” says Father Roberto. “People have crises more often. Their lives are not as secure, and we’ve had quite a lot of turnover. It’s quite exhausting.”6 Operating the Bakery was an ongoing challenge. While it contributed to the overall mission, it took more than its share of management attention. In addition to the full-time bakery administrator, the SJCM leadership team spent a lot of time on Bakery issues. Initiative Outcomes The Mission held a holistic view of people. It helped people see the value in themselves through connection with others. In contrast, traditional secular social service agencies were created to deal with problems, “move in the client, diagnose the problem, find the solution, implement or fix, move them out of the repair bay and move someone else in.”7 Funders of these agencies required evidence of program effectiveness, so it was important to collect information and evaluate success. How many people were fed? Who got jobs? How much did it cost? 4 St. John the Compassionate Mission, “St. John’s Bakery Apprenticeship Program Handbook,” p. 4. Ibid. 6 “New Businesses Are Cooking up More than Just Profits,” The Globe and Mail, April 2011, www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/new-businesses-are-cooking-up-more-than-just-profits/article535409/, accessed June 14, 2013. 7 Pospielovsky, “Internal History.” 5 Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Page 5 9B14C001 While the Mission could count the number of meals it served, it was far more difficult, and some would argue irrelevant, to measure its effectiveness. How did you measure connection or an individual’s selfworth? Yet a sense of self-worth was often a prerequisite to an individual’s decision to stay clean of drugs and alcohol, to go back to school, to get a job or to seek treatment. SJCM’s choice to be more holistically driven meant that many sources of funding, including government programs, were not available to it. Governance SJCM was an incorporated non-profit charity registered to issue charitable tax receipts. As such, it was required by law to issue financial statements and to have a board of directors elected by its membership. Eight board members were responsible for the big picture — vision, mission and strategy as well as financial control. Some board members engaged in operational functions such as human resources, financial management or fundraising when needed. The staff leadership council, including Father Roberto, were non-voting members of the board. Two additional non-voting members represented the Mission advisory board and the parish. In addition to the legal board, the Mission also hosted an advisory board composed of members of the community. It functioned as both a consultative body that provided advice about the needs of the community and as an incubator of leaders for the organization. It gave voice to many of the members of the community who had never experienced leadership. The Orthodox Church held a philosophy of leadership called sobornost, asking individuals to give up self-benefit for the needs of the community. The philosophy emphasized the values that the community shared, rather than its differences, thus encouraging collaboration. The board and leadership council would meet to wrestle with the issues facing the Mission. As a result of this messy approach, they discovered problems and solutions, helping each other to understand existing issues and identify new issues by listening to one another. Organizational Structure and Policies The staff leadership council, known as the sobor, a council of laity and priests chosen after careful reflection comprised Father Roberto, Deacon Pawel and Presbytera Maria Drossos, in her volunteer role as board chair. Decisions were taken by the executive director in consultation with the council. This leadership council ensured that the tone of the Mission was faithful to its purpose, identity and vision. The leadership council’s role was to realize the SJCM vision by conducting its day-to-day activities, keeping the board abreast of the Mission’s activities and programs. The Mission had 13 full-time staff, eight of whom were managers, and 26 part-time staff. In addition, there were numerous volunteers from the community. Many students completed unpaid placements or internships in community development, social work and hospitality. The organizational structure was flat, decentralized, with very low levels of formality. There was some specialization, as staff managed groups of loosely linked programs, although there was no formal organization chart. The Mission’s heritage as a small, nimble, innovative, entrepreneurial organization meant that it had few policies or procedures. It was a “just do it” kind of place. As growth began to place pressure on employees and volunteers, some policies had been developed; however, it was more of a patchwork than a consistent set of policies. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Page 6 Page 7 9B14C001 In 2011, Father Roberto engaged a consultant to conduct an organizational evaluation of the Mission. The consultant summarized the culture of the Mission as “visionary, powerful charisma, responsive, committed, engaged, loving acceptance, dedication, authentic, overpowering, exhausting, chaotic and precarious.”9 The report concluded that SJCM was a “busy, successful, meaningful and coherent example of compassion in action.”10 It identified six areas of tension: (1) the non-traditional blending of religious and social service organization, (2) a heavy dependence on the founder, (3) significant use of volunteers for program delivery, (4) its informal nature, (5) its significant growth and (6) minimal government funding. Non-traditional Blending of a Social Service and Religious Organization The unique blending of faith, spirituality and social service mission gave SJCM’s programs a depth and richness not found in secular social service agencies, creating long-term stability for the community. However, the leadership of both the parish and the Mission was challenging. Demands on Father Roberto, who occupied the roles of both executive director of the Mission and pastoral leader, were substantial. The choices that were appropriate for one role were sometimes in conflict with those of the other. As growth continued, these conflicts were bound to intensify. A Heavy Dependence on the Founder Father Roberto’s long tenure gave the Mission stability and consistency and created a unique organizational culture. He established and fostered long-term relationships that sustained the organization. Under his leadership, SJCM implemented a wide range of programs that were seen as best practice to serve homeless and marginalized people. However, with the growth of SJCM, the Mission had become too reliant on Father Roberto and his multiple roles of priest, pastoral care provider, leader, social services administrator and chief fundraiser. The lack of organizational structure and clarity meant that Father Roberto had a never-ending line of people following him around the Mission looking for answers. Significant Use of Volunteers to Deliver Programs SJCM believed that meaningful work contributed to a sense of dignity, self-worth and motivation, which might create a richer, happier life. Everyone was equal, a member of the community, contributing to shared goals. Roles at SJCM were very fluid. Some members of the parish volunteered, but many did not. Some volunteers came from the larger community. Community members often participated in some programs while volunteering to deliver other programs. Many of the volunteers lived in poverty and dealt with physical or mental illness or addiction. “Helpers and helped are kind of interchangeable.”11 8 This entire section is summarized from the consultant’s report. See P. Bowen, “Pax Ora et Labora (Peace, Pray and Work)”: A Review and Recommendations Related to the Mission, Vision and Work of the St. John the Compassionate Mission,” 2011. 9 Ibid., p. 2. 10 Ibid., p. 1. 11 Ibid., p. 6. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. ORGANIZATIONAL REVIEW8 9B14C001 Often new volunteers struggled with the culture of the Mission. Father Roberto referred to them as “Kurtz,” a character from Joseph Conrad’s novel, The Heart of Darkness. In the novel, Kurtz, the leader of a trading post in Africa, presented himself to the village as a demi-god. When volunteers became Kurtz types at the Mission, they became authoritarian and bossy. The Mission operated in an egalitarian way, promoting creative ideas, creative control and testing and learning from mistakes. The team appreciated individual strengths and accepted weaknesses. They engaged the whole community in decision-making. Some volunteers found this approach chaotic or needed to assert personal authority. This created management challenges for the leadership council. While high levels of volunteer engagement led to rapid growth of programs, it also led to lack of order. Often volunteers were assigned to tasks for which they did not possess the right skills. The current pool of volunteers lacked managerial and professional expertise. In addition, the lack of clarity around volunteer roles was problematic: Those interviewed described the sense that volunteers don’t know exactly what they’re supposed to be doing, or too many are doing the same things in varying styles, effectiveness, rushed inappropriately [sic]. There isn’t always the time or management arrangement to allocate people to tasks that suit them or to organize a schedule that avoids days where there are too many bodies versus times when there are not enough.12 The Informal Nature of the Mission The informal, relaxed, non-judging and welcoming feeling of the Mission provided community members with a sense of belonging. Every person, experience and activity was given equal importance and merit. This resulted in an almost constant level of urgency and activity, adding to the disorder. Significant Growth SJCM experienced unplanned entrepreneurial growth over the years. Virtually all programs started when someone noticed a need. Volunteers would jump in, and the initiative would take off. This approach resulted in innovation and risk-taking. This need-driven growth was central and unique to the Mission’s culture. While new initiatives had been important to serve the needs of the community, they resulted in staff burnout and ineffective program delivery. Often the skills and abilities of the staff were not well-aligned with new initiatives. Growth demanded more fundraising, a constant challenge for most grassroots community organizations. Finally, the Mission building was bursting at the seams. Not a single corner remained unused. The space wasn’t as clean or organized as it needed to be, and the furniture, equipment and building all experienced unsustainable wear and tear. 12 Ibid. p. 6. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Page 8 Page 9 9B14C001 Just more than 7 per cent of SJCM’s funding came from government sources, a relatively low proportion for a Canadian social service agency. Thus, the Mission relied on a broad array of smaller funders and supporters, as well as two social enterprises, for funding. Many small businesses regularly donated food or services in kind. This funding model gave the Mission the freedom to deliver on its vision independent of the expectations of government funders. It was also not susceptible to government funding cuts. As the accounting manager put it, “St. John’s is healthy, not wealthy.”13 As the organization grew, fundraising became a greater focus of paid staff and the board. Fundraising was not formally assigned to any one staff member, and no one had fundraising expertise. Result of the Operational Review — Two New Leadership Team Members As a result of the consultant’s report, the board approved the hiring of a director of operations, who joined the leadership council in 2011. Presbytera Maria resigned her volunteer position as board chair to assume the paid position of director of operations. She took charge of day-to-day operations, including scheduling, program delivery and volunteer management. She worked closely with the rest of the leadership council to make management decisions, design and implement programs, prepare grant and fundraising requests, develop a budget and provide day-to-day financial oversight. Around the same time, Deacon Theodore took a newly created staff position as director of community. STRATEGIC ISSUES While the Mission was stable in terms of leadership, assets and funding, it faced three pressing strategic issues. The new executive director, in consultation with the leadership team and the board, would need to address these issues. The Bakery was an ongoing challenge, carrying considerable financial risk. Father Roberto often wondered whether it was a distraction from the Mission’s main purpose. Should the Mission consider spinning off the Bakery? In the short term, the Bakery’s retail location was too small; there wasn’t enough room or the right equipment for production of both artisan bread and sweet goods. While it was making do in the current situation, it was clear that the Mission would have to either move the Bakery or find a second location for it. Continued growth meant ongoing issues for the Mission, especially an increased need for fundraising and volunteer management. While the new director of operations had reduced the chaos on a day-to-day basis, the organization clearly needed formal policies, processes and systems to manage these key functions. However, formalizing the organization was inconsistent with the Mission’s culture. Father Roberto worried that more structure would lead to a bureaucratized, itemized and analyzed culture — completely opposite to the Mission’s values. At the same time, Father Roberto had identified a need for service in the inner city suburb of Scarborough. Eight of the city’s 13 priority neighbourhoods were located there.14 Should SJCM consider expanding into Scarborough? Expanding would involve wrenching change as Scarborough was different from South Riverdale – it was suburban, sprawling and car-oriented, with a different mix of ethnicities, 13 14 Personal interview, May 23, 2013. United Way Toronto, “United Way Toronto Strong Neighbourhoods Strategy,” 2005. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Minimal Government Funding 9B14C001 cultures and beliefs. Yet the Mission was founded on passion, love and risk-taking. The role of the board and the leadership council was to ensure that the vision of the Mission did not become old and repetitive and that it evolved to meet the needs of the greater community, not just South Riverdale. THE DECISION SJCM wasn’t the kind of place where a neat and tidy plan could be delivered to the board for approval. The very nature of sobornost required debate, discussion, collaboration and contemplation. But still, Father Roberto needed to think about the direction of the conversation. What would a successful succession look like? Should the organizational structure change? How would they identify an appropriate person to fill his shoes? How would the community articulate, maintain and foster its culture? How would it prepare to deal with the big strategic questions facing the Mission? These were questions of both philosophical and practical importance. What Father Roberto, the leadership council and the board did know is that they didn’t want to end up Becoming just another social service agency with a vague whiff of religiousness… Becoming an organization where every initiative has to have a plan that is driven by metrics that are approved and scrutinized by committees and approved by boards. Becoming a place so protective of its established place in the world that [it] is afraid to change itself. Becoming a place that is run entirely by professionals where the community can no longer take a real role in its day-to-day operations because the stakes are seemingly too high.15 15 Pospielovsky, “Internal History,” p. 17. Authorized for use only in the course Leadership at California Institute of Advanced Management taught by Robert Kirkland from Sep 15, 2018 to Dec 16, 2018. Use outside these parameters is a copyright violation. Page 10
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