I am attaching all 3 essay question. The job is to find the best two for you to answer from a power point slide. each question have to be from the same chapter slides. there are 3 different chapter i am attaching as well. chapter 18,19 and 20. each one of these chapter has a question to answer. question 1 go to 18 chapter , question 2 go to 19 chapter, and question 3 go to 20 chapter. let me know if you don’t understand which go to which. each question should include some dates in the answer, because it is a history class.assay question at least 400 word for each one. no other sources just from the power point slide.
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Imperialism and the World Berlin Conference of 1884 • Held in Berlin, Germany from November 1884 to February 1885 • Attended by 14 nations to discuss territorial disputes in Africa • No Africans were invited to the conference • Attempt by European powers to establish political control in Africa • An effort to protect commercial interest Nations in Attendance • Hosted by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck • Represented nations included: Austria-Hungary Belgium Denmark France Germany Italy Netherland Ottoman Empire Portugal Russia Spain Sweden United Kingdom United States Conference Policies • European nations had to occupy and administer the territory • Nations with colonies could claim nearby interior territory • Rivers were to be open to ships of all European nations • Slavery and the slave trade were to end in all European colonies Idea of Colonialism “The control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent nation, territory, or people.” Idea of Imperialism “The policy of extending the power and influence of a nation over foreign countries by acquiring and holding colonies or political or economic dependencies.” Colonialism vs Imperialism Colonialism • A country conquers and rules over other regions • Exploits resources to benefit the conqueror • Builds and maintains the colony for continued benefit • Changes the social and economic structures of the colony Imperialism • Extends the political and economic control of a nation over a foreign nation for dominance • Exploits resources to benefit the conqueror • Maintains power through various political and social mechanisms Causes of Imperialism • Continued spread of industrialization • Industrialized nations needed resources • Technological advancements gave industrialized nations an advantage • Need for a cheap labor source • New marketplaces for manufactured goods • Political and economic rivalry Political Causes • National pride • France to forget the defeat of 1870 • Germany and Italy to become major powers • Great Britain to control the seas and strategic locations • New international rivalries Ideological Causes • Belief in European superiority • Ideas of social Darwinism led to conflict between nations • Western civilization felt its mission was to civilize the world • Belief in need to spread the Christian religion Other Causes • Technological superiority • Navies and railroads allowed for easier movement • New medicines protected Europeans from diseases • Diversity in Africa and Asia made it easy to fuel group rivalries New Imperialism and Africa • In 1879, France gained control of Algeria • In 1882, Britain gained control of Egypt • In 1885, Italy gained control of Tripoli (Libya) • In 1885, Belgium gained control of the Congo region • By 1900, Germany had gained control of southwest and eastern Africa France and Imperialism • Invaded Algeria in 1830 • Took 50 years of brutal warfare to pacify Muslim populace • Beginning of the “scramble for Africa” • Invaded Tunisia in 1881 and Morocco in 1912 • French settlers confiscated Arab lands Great Britain and Imperialism • By 1757, the British were established in India • Gained control of America and Canada in 1763 • Gained control of Cape Town in 1795 • Began expanding its empire after 1815 Great Britain and Imperialism • East India Company pushed the expansion in Asia • Gained control of Hong Kong in 1842 after the 1st Opium War • By 1877, British policies lead to revolts in South Africa • Gained control of the Suez Canal in 1882 Italy and Imperialism • Occupied Eritrea in 1882 • Invaded Ethiopia in 1895 – but defeated • Gained control of Somalia in 1890 • Gained control of Tripoli in 1912 • Invaded Ethiopia in 1935 Belgium and Imperialism • Established the Congo Free State in 1885 • Exploited resources • Used forced labor and brutality to maintain control • Millions of Congolese died from 1885 – 1908 • Gained control of Rwanda and Burundi in 1919 Germany and Imperialism • Occurred later in scramble for Africa • Promoted by individuals rather than government • Established holdings in East and West Africa by 1860 • Gained control of South West Africa in 1884 Japan and Imperialism • By 1860, western influence was spreading • Began with Meiji Restoration in 1868 • Brought on by rapid industrialization, militarization and need for resources • By 1869, Emperor Mutsuhito ordered the adoption of western ideas and technologies Japan and Imperialism • Gained control of Taiwan in 1895 after defeating China • Defeated Russia in 1905 gaining control of Korea and parts of Manchuria • In 1910, officially annexed Korea • Expansion policies continued until 1942 United States and Imperialism • Began with aftermath of the Spanish – American War in 1898 • Possessed a large modern navy • Annexed Hawaii in 1898 • Gained control of the Panama Canal in 1903 • Viewed policy as expansionism instead of imperialism Charles Darwin • In November 1859, published his work On the Origin of Species • Introduced the theory of evolution and natural selection • The term Social Darwinism came into use in Europe by the 1870s Social Darwinism • Term 1st appears around 1880 • A concept of natural selection applied to human society • Used to justify political conservatism imperialism and racism to discourage intervention or reform • Theory began to decline by the mid – 20th century as new knowledge undermined its ideas Africa and Colonialism • By 1914, most of Africa was under European control • Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent nations • Europeans exported the resources of their colonies New Imperialism and Asia • Europeans established small colonies in Asia during the 16th century • In 1770, James Cook claimed Australia for Britain • By 1856, most of India was under the control of the British East India Company Imperialism and Russia • During the 18th century expansion occurred to the south and east, including today’s Alaska • By 1830, the territory north of the Black Sea had been annexed • By 1885, expansion to the south reached Persia • War with Japan in 1905, halted expansion to the east Imperialism and China • In 1842, at the close of the Opium War, Britain gained expanded trading rights and Hong Kong • By 1900, many western nations controlled spheres of influence • In 1901, western nations gained expanded trading rights Effects of Imperial Rule • Based on the demands of the global market • Affected the lives of millions in Africa and Asia • Colonial states had the power to tax, seize land, compel labor, and change infrastructure • Gold, diamonds, tin, copper, coffee, cotton, sugar, and other products were exported • Labor demands changed labor patterns Policies of Imperialism • Local peoples were subject to forced labor • Peasants required to cultivate portions of their land in cash crops, such as sugar or coffee, to pay their taxes • Confiscation of land for European enterprises • Goods produced were exported to the global market Migration Under Imperialism • Migration of peoples of Africa spread in several directions • Large sections of land were given to European ownership • Nearly 29 million Indians and 19 million Chinese migrated to Southeast Asia • Migration of Chinese spread in several directions Education Under Imperialism • Many Europeans believe it their duty to “improve” the societies they controlled • Europeans shared education and industrial technology • Education allowed limited mobility for those ruled Religion Under Imperialism • Introduced Christianity around the world • By 1910, nearly 10,000 European missionaries had traveled to Africa • By 1960, nearly 50 million Africans claimed a connection with Christianity • Christianity made little inroads in to India • Created a resurgence in Indian religion and Hinduism Consequences of Imperialism • Changed traditional ways of life • Imperial rule led to a new sense of self identity • Established the idea of nationalism within the colonies • Allowed limited mobility to colonial subject and created segregation and racism • Led to a “tribally” divided Africa Independence Spreads • Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon in 1946 • The Philippine Islands on July 4, 1946 • Pakistan and India on August 15, 1947 • Burma (Myanmar) on January 4, 1948 • Ceylon (Sri Lanka) on February 4, 1948 • Indonesia on December 27, 1949 • Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia on July 20, 1954 Europe, the Middle East and East Asia Decline of the Ming • By 1600, wars and revolts had drained the government treasury • Emperor withdrew from official site and relied on ministers • European powers had established trading rights Decline of the Ming • By 1640, the decline in the supply of silver weakened the economy • Unusual weather patterns led to food shortages and famine in northern China • In 1644, Manchus move into northern China and occupy Beijing China and the Qing Dynasty • Established by the Manchu in 1644 • Increased agricultural production allowed for population growth • Experienced little advancement in agricultural technology • Last imperial dynasty Qing Government • Maintained much of the Ming bureaucracy and institutions • Han Chinese were used in many government positions • Emperor was an absolute ruler • Governed through the Six Ministries • Abolished the imperial examination system in 1905 Six Ministries • Board of Civil Appointments – administration of all civil officials • Board of Revenue – managed finances • Board of Rites – oversaw court protocol • Board of War – limited powers over military • Board of Punishments – oversaw legal matters • Board of Works – oversaw building projects Qing Society • Divided in to five estates or classes: Emperor, gentry, bureaucrats, working and lower • Aristocracy received imperial privileges and controlled local affairs • Jobs were passed on in the family • Social mobility increased • Influenced by the Confucian moral system Qing Economy • Land reform allowed for peasant land ownership • Balanced trade with the West led to an influx of silver to the treasury • Exported tea, silk, gems, porcelain and textiles • Market cities began to spread across China China and the Qing • In 1685, the population was 100 million • In 1853, the population reached 430 million • Government failed to keep up with demands of the growing population • Did not experience an Industrial Revolution • By the 19th century there was widespread unemployment, roaming bandits and peasant revolts The Opium War • By 1820, Britain began pressing China for less trade restrictions • British exported opium from India to China • China’s refusal to make new trade agreements led to the 1st Opium War in 1839 Britain, China and Opium • China imported 150,000 pounds of opium in 1773 • Increased production led to increased importation • Nearly 3 ½ million pounds were imported in 1832 • In 1836, the Qing government began programs to suppress the drug • Treaty of Nanking in 1842 gave Britain new trading ports in China and Hong Kong Britain, China and Opium • Increased attacks on British citizens and merchants by Chinese raised tensions • 2nd Opium War began in October 1856 over the “Arrow” incident • In late 1857, France joined Britain in its war against China • China was forced to open more ports to Western trade at the end of the 2nd Opium War in 1858 Taiping Uprising • Began by peasants in southern China in 1850 • Nanjing established as capital in 1853 • Rejected traditional Chinese ideas • Called for widespread radical change • Suppressed in 1864 Hong Xiuquan • Born on January 1, 1814 in southwest China • Failed the imperial examinations four times • Influenced by Christian teachings • Established the God Worshippers’ Society • Nearly 30,000 followers by 1850 Taiping Uprising • • • • • Began in July 1850 in southwest China Proclaimed the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Defeated multiple government forces Captured Nanjing on March 10, 1853 Attempt to capture Shanghai fails in August 1860 • Uprising ended in July 1864 following the death of Hong Xiuquan and fall of Nanjing Taiping Rebellion • British and French assist government forces at Shanghai with artillery • Last Taiping army was defeated in August 1871 • About 20 – 30 million people died during uprising • Led to labor shortages and fueled future revolts Decline of the Qing • The Treaty of Tientsin in June 1858 increased Chinese dependency on Western nations • In 1885, France gained control of Vietnam • In 1895, Japan gained control of Korea and Taiwan • Reforms by the government failed to restore Chinese society • Growing dependency on the West led to anti – foreigner movements in China Decline of the Qing • Failed reforms led to establishment of local groups to discuss China’s declining society • Groups called for the expulsion of foreigners • Groups viewed as a threat to the government • Hundred Days of Reform were resisted by Western educated and elite Chinese • By 1911, power shifted from the central government to local provincial warlords Boxer Rebellion • By 1898, anti-western sentiment was growing • Economic decline and foreign intervention created discontent • Anything Western was subject to be attacked • Originated in northern China Boxer Rebellion • The Righteous and Harmonious Fists (Boxers) rose in the province of Shandong • In June 1899, the Boxer army laid siege to Peking • An alliance of eight western nations sent troops to break the siege • On June 21 China declared war on the western nations Decline of the Qing • Western forces defeated China and the Boxers • On September 7, 1901, China agreed to the terms of the western powers • Qing Dynasty continued under Dowager Empress Cixi, but in a weakened position • Local lords began to gain control of provinces and broke away from the central government • Qing Dynasty began to fall apart in 1911 The Ottomans • Established as an Islamic state by Osman I in 1299 in northwestern Anatolia • Sultans were the supreme political and military leaders of the empire • Expanded over the next 300 years • Became the leader of the Islamic world • Viewed themselves as the “Guardians of Islam” The Ottoman Empire • Brought political unity to the region • Ended the Byzantine Empire with the capture of Constantinople in 1453 • Practiced toleration of other religions • Conquered the Balkans by 1500 Ottoman Empire • Became a military and political power in the Mediterranean region • Population of 30 million by 1600 • By 1600 economic and political stagnation weakened Ottoman power and influence • Reached its apex in 1683 at the Siege of Vienna • By 1750, had become the central political and military power of the Islamic world Decline of the Ottoman Empire • Began with the French conquest of Egypt in 1798 • Independence movements led to the loss of Greece, Bosnia, Serbia, Romania, and Cyprus • Modernization reforms began in 1839, including practicing any religion • Western style laws, courts and education were adopted • By 1850, Ottoman power and influence began to wane Decline of the Ottomans • By 1850, reformers were calling for a democratic style government • Cheap European goods devastated local economies • Became heavily indebted to European nations • In 1882, Britain gained control of Egypt • By 1890, members of the military and elite known as “Young Turks” advocate for modernization Decline of the Ottoman Empire • Called the “sick man of Europe” by 1900 • By 1900, the idea of Islamic modernism spread across the Muslim world • A coup in 1908 led to the called for a Turkish nation • Joined the Central Powers in World War I • Weak rulers, wars, a failing economy, taxes and foreign expansion led to decline Rise of the Safavid Empire • Established in 1501 by Shah Ismail I in Azerbaijan • Considered the beginning of modern Iranian history • Expanded their control through Persia, Georgia and Iraq by 1510 • Defeated by the Ottomans in August 1514 • In 1526 tribal wars disrupted expansion Safavid Empire • A series of weak rulers led to a decline in the empire • Reached its apex by 1600 • Experienced a resurgence between 1603 – 1618 under Shah Abbas I • Established diplomatic relations in Europe • Continued warfare with the Ottoman Empire and Uzbeks weakened the empire Decline of the Safavid Empire • New threats arose in the Russian and Mughal Empires • The Ottoman Empire and Russia invaded the empire in 1722 • Treaty of Constantinople in 1724 divided Safavid territory • Tribal conflicts ended the empire in 1736 Rise of Japan • Tokugawa dynasty established in 1603 • Portuguese explorers reach Japan in the mid – 1540s • Remained isolated until from 1603 – 1850 • In 1853, the United States demanded an “open door” policy Rise of Japan • By the 1830s, Western powers were demanding access to Japanese markets • Pressure from European nations, Russia and the United States forced unfavorable treaties upon Japan • In 1868, a political takeover consolidated power with the emperor • By 1870, Western ideas were being adopted Modernizing Japan • By 1870, the shoguns had been replaced by a modernizing government • By 1870, anything Western was being adopted into Japanese society, but became more selective by 1890 • By 1900, Japan was nearly self – sufficient • By 1900, Japan was a rising economic and military power in East Asia and the Pacific Growing Japanese Power • In 1895, gained control of Taiwan from China • Anglo – Japanese Treaty in 1902 recognized Japan as a world power • In 1905, gained control of Korea from Russia • Openly annexed Korea in 1910 Road to War in Asia • By 1933 the rising power of Japan controlled Korea, Formosa, Manchuria, and islands in the Pacific • The Great Depression had limited Japan’s access to raw materials and resources • Japan began to expand its navy in 1935 • Japan’s goals were to conquer British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies for the resources Japan and Asian Expansion • Japanese troops occupied Manchuria in September 1931 • Japan declared war on China in 1937 and occupied northern areas of China • Japanese troops occupied Indochina in July 1941 Japan and World War II • On December 7, 1941, Japanese carrierbased aircraft attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • Japanese forces occupied islands across the Pacific Ocean, including the Philippines • The Battles of Coral Sea and Midway in May and June 1942 devastated Japanese naval forces Defeat of Japan • By the summer of 1943 Allied forces were “island hopping” in its advance toward the Japanese mainland • Allied forces reoccupied the Philippines by April 1945 • By April 1945 Allied forces had defeated Japanese forces in Burma and Hunan • Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945, after 2 atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Scanned with CamScanner
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